Expertise of MRCET have researched and collected B.Tech 1st Year English Language Communication Skills Lab Manual study material in pdf format. This pdf formatted MRCET B.Tech 1st Year English Language Communication Skills Lab Manual covered the subject concepts in a comprehend manner for easy reference to their students.
CourseB.Tech 1st Year
asd asd asd MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in PREFACE
English is a universal language and it is understood all over the world. In fact, in toda y's world speaking English has become a necessity it is not only that our today's generatio n looks down upon anyone who is unable to speak English. It has become more like a status symbol. All the companies are recruiting only those people who speak fluen t and correct English. With the coming up of the call centers and Multinational companies the ne ed for English language has increased ten folds.
With all this happening one cannot afford to live without speaking English.
The manual provides Five units with exclusive ex ercises of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL LAB) followed by activities o f Interactive communication Skills (ICS LAB) . Exercises are followed for mastering the soft skills, apart from oral exercises in the lab through the use of software. Chapter wise space is provided for student to practice one or two exercises in written form. The rest of the exercis es are done orally in the lab hours allotted to
them. Chapter wise teacher evaluation on various aspec ts of verbal and non verbal communication helps the student to perform better as he progresses in practicing his communication skills. Thus the student slowly realizes the importance of professi onal communication and etiquettes which are now in demand. Hope the manual fulfils the desir e of the readers in acquiring soft skills required for their success.
The preponderance of communication in the academic and professional arena motivated us to take up this assignment of writing ELCS LAB Manual. We hope t hat this manual with comprehensive coverage of all aspects will prove to be relevant and useful for the students.
We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to Dr S Srinivasa Rao , Principal, Malla Reddy College of Engineering and Technology (autonomous) u nder whose patronage we were able to write this manual, we are also indebted to our Head of the Department, Humanities & Sciences, MRCET, Dr. V Madhusudhana Reddy, for his constant support and motivation to us. All and all, this manual is your free ticket to the world of speaking bett er and fluent
English. With great pleasure, we acknowledge the co mpatible environment shared by our colleagues.
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in B. TECH I YEAR L T/P/D C 3 - / - / - 1.5
(R22A0081) ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION SKILLS LAB The Language Lab focuses on the production and prac tice of sounds of the English language and familiarizes the students with its use in every day situations and contexts.
1. To facilitate computer-aided multi-media instruction enabling individualized and independent language learning 2. To sensitize the students to the nuances of English speech sounds, word accent, intonation and rhythm 3. To bring about a consistent accent and intelligibility in their pronunciation, ample
speaking opportunities are provided.
4. To improve the fluency in spoken English and neutralize mother tongue influence 5. To train students to use language appropriately for interviews, group discussions and public speaking English Language Communication Skills Lab has two parts:
a. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Lab b. Interactive Communication Skills (ICS) Lab The following course content is prescribed fo r the English Language Communication Skills Lab UNIT –I
CALL Lab: Introduction to Phonetics –Speech Sounds –Vowels and Consonants- Transcriptions ICS Lab: Ice-Breaking activity - JAM session UNIT –II CALL Lab: Pronunciation: Past Tense Markers and Plural Markers
ICS Lab: Situational Dialogues/Role Plays- –Greetings - Taking Leave – Introducing Oneself and Others - Requests and Seeking Permissions ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in
UNIT –III CALL Lab: Syllable and Syllabification ICS Lab: Describing Objects/ Situations/ People UNIT –IV CALL Lab: Word Stress and Intonation
ICS Lab: Information transfer – from visual to verbal - maps, charts, tables and graphs UNIT –V CALL Lab: Errors in Pronunciation - Accent - the Inf luence of Mother Tongue (MTI) ICS Lab: Making a Short Speech - Extempore ELCS Lab:
1. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Lab:
The Computer aided Language Lab for 60 students with 60 systems, one master console, LAN facility and English language software for self-study by learners.
System Requirement (Hardware component):
Computer network with LAN with minimum 60 multimedia systems with the following specifications:
i) P –IV Processor a) Speed –2.8 GHZ b) RAM –512 MB Minim um c) Hard Disk –80 GB ii) Headphones of High quality
2. Interactive Communication Skills (ICS) Lab :
This lab is a spacious room with movable chairs and audio-visual aids with a Public Address System, a T. V., a digital stereo –audio & video system and camcorder etc.
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in DISTRIBUTION AND WEIGHTAGE OF MARKS English Language Laboratory Practical Examination:
1. The practical examinations for the English Language Laboratory shall be conducted as per the University norms prescribed for the core engineering p ractical sessions.
2. For the Language lab sessions, there shall be a contin uous evaluation during the year for 30 marks and 70 year-end Examination marks. Of the 30 marks, 20 m arks shall be awarded for day- to-day work and 10 marks to be awarded by conducting Inter nal Lab Test(s). The year-end Examination shall be conducted by the teacher concerned with the help of another member of the staff of the same department of the other institu tion.
1. Learning with precision through computer-assisted i ndividualized and independent language learning to work independently in engineer ing set up.
2. Improved conversational reception and articulation techniques in the course of repetitive instruction thereby gaining confidence both in instituti onal and professional environment.
3. Accuracy in pronunciation and restoring Standard En glish thereby crafting better command in English language so that the students have a cutting edge over others in society.
4. Imbibing appropriate use of language in situations t o work as an individual and as o leader in diverse teams ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in
INDEX S.NO TOPICS PG. NO 1. UNIT – I CALL Lab : Introduction to Phonetics 01 ICS Lab : Ice-Breaking activity and JAM session 11
2. UNIT – II CALL Lab : Pronunciation: Past Tense Markers and Plural Markers 17 ICS Lab : Situational Dialogues – Role-Play 23 3. UNIT - III CALL Lab: Syllable and Syllabification 31
ICS Lab : Describing Objects/ Situations/ People 34 4. UNIT - IV CALL Lab: Word Stress and Intonation 42 ICS Lab : Information Transfer 51 5. UNIT - V
CALL Lab: Errors Pronunciation in Accent - MTI 58 ICS Lab : Extempore 68 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES UNIT – I
(CALL LAB) INTRODUCTION TO PHONETICS Phonetics is the systematic study of speech sounds and their production, audition, and perception . It is the branch of linguistics that deals with the speech sounds and their combination, description and representation by writ ten symbols. It is the systematic study of speech
sounds of language. Phonetics can deal with the speech soun ds of any language.
Speech Sounds In English, there are twenty-six letters but forty-four sounds (44) the sounds of English are divided into two main categories; the vowels and the consonants . All these are represented by specific symbols. The source of symbols is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a system of transcription which attempts to represent each sound of human speech using symbols.
VOWELS A vowel sound is unobstructed in articulation as it is produced without friction. Of the 20 vowel sounds , 12 are pure vowel sounds or single sounds and are called monophthongs ; while 8 are vowel glides from an initial sound to a final sound and are called diphthongs.
These are of three types:
a) Front: A front vowel is that during the production of which th e tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 1 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES b) Central: A central vowel is that during the production of wh ich the centre of the tongue is raised towards that part of the roof of the mouth which lies at the meeting point of the hard
palate and the soft palate c) Back: A back vowel is that during the production of which the back of the tongue is raised in the directi on of the soft palate.
Pure Vowels Or Monophthongs Examples /ɪ/ kill, fill
/iː/ feel, m eet /e/ be t, set /æ/ ca t, mat /ɑː/ ca r, park /ɒ/ po t, cot
/ɔː/ Ba ll, fall /ʊ/ pu t, good /uː/ shoot, root /ʌ/ cu t, but /ɜː/ h eard, bird
/ə/ about, around DIPHTHONGS A diphthong is a combination of two pure vowel sounds which changes it s quality in a syllable. A diphthong always occupies one syllable. Diphth ong is not two vowels but one vowel sound leads to another vowel sound.
Diphthongs Examples /eɪ/ day, pl ay MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 2 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
/aɪ/ fly, t ie /əʊ/ go, no /aʊ/ c ow, now /ɔɪ/ oil, boil /ɪə/ f ear, dear
/eə/ fare, ha re /ʊə / sure, poor CONSONANT SOUNDS Consonant sounds are the sounds which are produced with obstruction of air. There are 24 consonant sounds in English according to the R P of England and production of them
involves some friction. They are given below with e xamples.
Consonants Examples /p/ pen, copy, happen /b/ back, baby, job /t/ tea, tight, button /d/ day, ladder, odd
/k/ key, clock, school /g/ get, giggle, ghost /tʃ/ c hurch, match, nature /dʒ/ judge, age, soldier /f/ fat, coffee, rough, photo
/v/ view, heavy, move /θ/ thing, author, path /ð/ this, other, smooth /s/ soon, cease, sister /z/ zero, music, roses, buzz
/ʃ/ ship, sure, national /ʒ/ pleasure, vision /h/ hot, whole, ahead /m/ more, hammer, sum /n/ nice, know, funny, sun
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 3 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES THREE TERM LABEL /ŋ/ ring, anger, thanks ,sung /l/ light, valley, feel
/r/ right, wrong, sorry, arrange /j/ yet, use, beauty, few /w/ wet, one, when, queen Usually, consonant sounds can be described in terms of the following:
1. Place of articulation 2. Manner of articulation 3. Voice of articulation The Place of Articulation This refers to the articulators that are involved in the production of a particular sound. These are
divided into eight types:
Bilabial : Bilabial sounds are those sounds made by the articula tion of the lips against each other.
Examples of such sounds in English are the following: [b], [p], and [m].
Labiodentals: Labiodentals sounds are those sounds made by he articulation of the upper teeth towards the lower lip. Examples of such sounds in Eng lish are the following: [f], [v].
Dental : Dental sounds are those sounds made by the articulat ion of the tip of the tongue towards the back of the teeth. The sounds [θ] [ð] are pronounced with a dental articulation.
Alveolar : Alveolar sounds are those sounds made by the articu lation of the tip of the tongue towards the alveolar ridge, the ridge of cartilage be hind the teeth. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l] Post Alveolar : Post alveolar sound is a sound which is also made with the help of blade of the tongue and just above part of the alveolar ridge. There is one post alveolar sound in English. That is [r]
Alveo -Palatal : Alveo-palatal sounds are those sounds made by the a rticulation of the front of the tongue towards the area between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. Examples of such sounds in English are the following [ʒ], [ʃ], [tʃ], [dʒ] Palatal : Palatal sounds are those sounds made by the articul ation of the body of the tongue towards the hard palate. An example of such a sound in English is [j].
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 4 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Velar : Velar sounds are those sounds made by the articulat ion of the body of the tongue towards the velum. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: [k], [g] [ŋ]
Glottal : Glottal sounds are those sounds made at the glottis. An example of glottal sound in English is the [h].
The Manner of Articulation This refers to how a sound is produced and the way in which the air-s tream is modified as it passes through the vocal folds/cords. These are of seven ty pes:
Plosive: It is formed by a blockage of the vocal tract, follo wed by an explosive release of air.
Examples of plosives in English are , , , , , .
Fricative: It is formed by slight contact between articulators , allowing turbulent airflow.
Examples of fricatives in English are [θ], [ð], , , , , , , [h].
Affricate: It is formed by a blockage of the vocal tract, like p losive, followed by a gradual release of turbulent air, like a fricative. Examples of affricates in English are [tʃ] [dʒ] Nasal: It is formed by the lowering of the velum, allow ing air to flow through the nasal cavity. Examples of nasals in English are [m], [n], [ŋ].
Approximant (laterals and glides): It is formed by the constriction of the vocal t ract, but with no blockage of the airflow. Examples of approxima nts in English are [l], [r], [j], [w] Tap: It is formed by a quick contact between articul ators. , for example, there is the tap [r], which can be found in the middle of words such as ladder, and butter.
Trill: It is formed by the rapid vibration of the tongue ti p by a current of air. For example, in varieties of British and Scots English it is also known as "rolled r ” [r] Voice of Articulation:
Voice of Articulation can be divided into two-voiced an d voiceless. Voiced : Voiced sounds are produced when the vocal cords vibrate in the larynx. Voiceless : Voiceless sounds are produced without the vibration of the vocal cord s.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 5 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES THREE-TERM LABELS FOR OF CONSONANTS SOUNDS Consonant Voice Place of articulation Manner of Articul ation Examples
/p/ voiceless bilabial plosive pin, sp in /b/ voiced bilabial plosive big, ab out /t/ voiceless alveolar
plosive tank, act /d/ voiced alveolar plosive danger, adapt /k/ voiceless velar plosive king, speak er /g/ voiced velar plosive gone, beg in
/ tʃ / voiceless alveo palatal affricate church, bat ch /dʒ/ voiced alveo palatal affricate jar, bridge /f/ voiceless labio-dental fricative fill, farm /v/ voiced labio-dental fricative vow, vine /θ/ voiceless dental fricative thick, eigh th
/ð/ voiced dental fricative then, wea ther /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative size, sum /z/ voiced alveolar fricative zoo, desert /ʃ/ voiceless palato alveolar fricative sheep, ca sh /ʒ/ voiced palato-alveolar fricative measure, provision
/h/ voiceless glottal fricative home, behold /m/ voiced bilabial nasal man, calm MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 6 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
/n/ voiced alveolar nasal know, can al /ŋ/ voiced velar nasal ring, E nglish /l/ voiced alveolar lateral love, life /r/ voiced post alveolar lateral red, great /j/ voiced unrounded palatal glide yellow. Beau ty
/w/ voiced rounded – palatal glide water, wonder EXERCISES I. Give five examples for each of the following sounds.
Sounds Examples / ʊ / / ɪ / / ʌ / / ə /
/ ɒ / / ɜː/ / e / _ II. Identify and write the phonetic script of the underl ined diphthongs in the following words.
Words Sounds Bite Tear Toy Around
Dare Gold _ III. Give one example for each of the following sounds:
Sound Example /d/ MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 7 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
/p/ /f/ /j/ / ʃ / /dʒ/
IV. Identify the sound and write the phonetic script of the underlined sound in the following words.
Word Sound a) chat b) rest c) thin d) ship
e) leisure f) judge g) laugh h) cathartic i) brother
j) singing k) yacht V. Transcribe the following words a) Fish b) Oath
c) Zero d) Water e) Forget f) Hair g) Idea
h) Bag i) Phonetics j) English k) Manual MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 8
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES l) Food m) Car n) Machine
o) Judge p) Measure q) Kitchen OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 9
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 10 ELCS LAB MANUAL
DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES (ICS LAB) ICE BREAKING ACTIVITY and JAM SESSION A. Objectives To give a quick start and initiation.
To make students to start things on a pleasant note an d think differently To create interest among the students about a topic by exploring thoughts and ideas To learn the use of body language and improve verbal me ssage To gain experience in extemporaneous speaking or a pr epared oral presentation
To understand the use of articles and prepositions To gain knowledge of word formation through usage of su ffix, prefix, synonyms and antonyms.
B. Content Introduction: Ice Breakers are an effective way of starting an interaction session or team- building event. They can be interactive and fu n sessions, which run prior to the main event or day ‘s activity. The activities can form a number of varieties including problem solving, faci litation, communication,
leadership, team building, sharing and trust and de cision making.
Ice breakers are particularly well suited for begin ning a speech or starting a meeting. As the name implies, they ―break the i ce,‖ help pa rticipant s relax, and generally set the tone for the presentation. They help to relax participants, and that makes them more receptive to listening and contribu ting. An ice br eaker can also serve to c reate a ―team atm osphere‖ and motivat e participants to work with
others in a cooperative manner.
Our Ice Breaker Activities are aimed at adding some e nergy and fun, allowing your team to think and look differently at how they can work together.
Knowing when to insert an ice breaker requires sens itivity and creativity. This will provide a unique opportunity for your team to develop new skills that can be critical for success in the workplace.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 11 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES In order to make ice breakers to be effective, it must employ Content, appropriate to the group,
Appropriately timed, Should occur at the beginning, and then at appropriat e times during the program.
Lucky Penny : Each person takes a penny or other coin out of his /her pocket and looks at the date. When it's his/her turn, s/he states the year that's on their coin and recalls something spectacular that happene d that year.
Categories - Have members of the group arrange themselves into groups by their favorite dessert, sport, color, movie, car, e tc. This is a good activity to get people up and moving and to find out commo n likes. You can shift from on e categor y to anothe r. ―Now group by group on favorit e vacation spot .‖ Stereotype Chat: Place a paper on each person's back with a characteristic on
it (Valley Girl, Smart, Happy, Rich). Don't let them s ee what you are putting on them. Let the participants wander around and talk to each other, treating each other as they might treat someone with that characte ristic. Afterward have everyone guess what characteristic they had and tel l how they felt (good way to start a discussion on stereotypes or a cultural program).
True or False: Participants say three things about themselves - two true and one false. Other participants guess what the lie is. The correct guesser goes next.
Know thyself: In this activity, the participants are asked to mak e a sincere attempt to symbolize themselves in the form of a pi ctograph. For example: a flower for sensitiveness and a stone for hardness.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 12 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 13
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES JUST A MINUTE (JAM) Just-A-Minute (or JAM) is an all-round-fun event that is all about the control of the mind over the mouth. A participant is expected to make it through sixty seconds of non-stop talking
without hesitation, repetition, or deviation .
‘Just a Minute ’ or JAM is an impromptu speech test conducted with th e time limit of one minute.
Elements of JAM Effective impromptu speaking is a skill that can be honed through constant practice an d deliberate, continuous training given to the brain.
Some situations which demand impromptu speech are… Self introduction- introducing others-greetings and taking leave Where your instructor would like to know what you u nderstood Viva-voce in a practical examination Decisions in a committee
Introducing a celebrity/a person to an elite group of people Status of a Project Stating one ’s point of view/ analysis of a situation etc… Positives and Negatives in JAM Positives
Snatch every opportunity to make impromptu speeches Visualize what you would say in every situation.
Analyze and assimilate your ideas in the given situ ation.
Organize your ideas and stick to the topic.
Be creative and express new ideas every time.
Follow a sequence and be brief.
Analyze audience needs, interests…(remember you could be talking to an informed audience) Sustain attention by including some interesting jok es, quotations anecdotes etc… Give examples from your life experience…it builds your confidence.
Practice the use of one word substitutes, idiomatic e xpressions and vocabulary.
Vary pace, pitch and tone of voice for greater impact.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 14 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Negatives Shy away from expressing your ideas.
Seclude yourself from any situation in which you ar e present.
Try and memorize what you will say.
Deviate or detach your life experiences from your line of thought.
Repeat the points or show lack of coherence.
Ramble on or give too many pauses or excessively use ‘fillers ’.
Use negative, ambiguous jargon.
Talk at or talk down but talk to your audience.
STEPS TO FOLLOW:
1. Go back to background knowledge and gather all the necessary ideas related to the topic given to you.
2. Organize the ideas in a sequential order either thematically or chronologically.
3. Express them with clarity and cohesiveness.
4. Remember the three important rules:
No deviation No repetition No hesitation EXERCISES JAM SESSION:
If I were invisible What I did during my last vacation?
All that glitters is not gold Most memorable moment My goal in life Women are good managers Student ’s Worksheet:
Choose one of the topics given above and write at least ten sentences on that.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 15 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 16
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES UNIT – II (CALL LAB) PRONUNCIATION
(Listening Activities) Importance of Pronunciation In order to speak correct English, pronunciation shou ld be used correctly. By using careful speech habits in one’s speech, simple mistakes can be avoided. Learning ap propriate pronunciation techniques give one the confidence to avoid common errors in speech.
The distinction between letters and sounds A lot of conscious and systematic effort will therefo re be needed to acquire good pronunciation and to make one ‘s own speech intelligible to the other. It is necessary and essential for Indian students to be able to distinguish betw een sounds and letters. The English word “next” for example, has four letters- n,e,x and t- but it has five sounds such as /n/,/e/,/ k/,/s/ and
/t/.similarly the word “debt” has four letters – d,e,b and t- but it has only three sounds such as /d/,/e/ and /t/.here, the letter ‘b’ is silent. The following explanation will hel p you understand the exact distinction between sounds and letters.
We are aware that the English alphabet has 26 letters and these represent 44 distinct sounds.
For eg:the consonant sound /k/ is represented by different spellings as given below.
Similarly, MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 17 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Sound Letters words
k kind c call cc accord /k/ ck back ch character
qu queen qu conqu er different sounds are represented by consonant letters ‘ch’ in different words as given below.
Letter Sound Words ch /k/ /tʃ/ /ʃ/ chemistry bench
machine Similarly, the vowel ‘a’ is represented by many sounds as given below.
Letter Sound Words A /eɪ/ /ə/,/ɑ:/ /æ/ /ɔ:/
/ɪə/ /ɪ/ Age banana mat chalk
ear village MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 18 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
Further, some letters do not represent any sound. These are silent letters. Here are some examples, Silent letter Words b c d
p t k l tomb rack
wednesday psychology catch know talk
Another interesting feature of English language is th at often we would find a latter or a group of letters representing different sounds but no indication graphically.
Letter(s) Words sound gh x rough, enou gh examine /f/, /gz/
x box /ks/ x xerox
/z/ x luxury /kʃ/ ph
photo /f/ Past Tense Markers The suffix –ed is used for making past and participle forms. T hese suffixes are always represented by the letter –d or the letters –ed. These suffixes are called inflexional suffixes. Th e inflexional
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 19 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES suffixes are pronounced as /-t/,/-d/ and /-id/.The different pronunciations of the se suffixes are governed by the following rules.
1. Whenever the past tense marker so called - d or –ed falls immediately after voiceless sounds except - t then it is pronounced as /t/ .
Ex: kick ed (t) laughed (t) lock ed (t) pushed (t) stopp ed (t) Whenever the past tense marker so called - d or –ed falls immediately after voiced sounds (vowels also) except - d then it is pronounced as /d/ .
Ex: begg ed (d) call ed (d) lov ed (d) play ed (d) carri ed (d) 2. Whenever the past tense marker so called - d or –ed falls immediately after the sounds - t and –d then the past tense marker is pronounced as /Id/ Ex: hand ed (Id) hunted (Id)lamented (Id) load ed(Id) want ed (Id) Plural markers
Plurals, Possessives of nouns and simple present tense third person singular forms of verbs markers.
The inflectional suffixes –s or –es are pronounced as /-s/,/-z/ and /-iz/.The different pronunciations of these suffixes are governed by the following rules.
1. Whenever the plural marker so called -s or -es falls immediately after the voicel ess sounds except /s/,/∫/ and /t∫/ then it is pronounced as /s/.
Ex: cats cooks cakes cups months 2. Whenever the plural marker so called -s or -es fal ls immediate after the voiced sounds (vowels also) except /z/,/3/ and /d3/ then it is prono unced as /z/ Ex: bags (z) boards (z) call s (z) cities (z) comes (z) 3. Whenever the plural marker so called - s or -es falls immediately after the six siblings
/s/,/z/,/∫/,/3/,/t∫/ and/d3/ then it is pronounced as / -iz/ MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 20 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Ex: buses (iz) bush es (iz) catch es (iz) edg es (iz) roses (iz)
Exercises Tick the appropriate word in the following sentences.
1. He wants to sell / sail his boat.
2. The ship is ready to sell / sail.
3. My hurt / heart aches.
4. I am hurt / heart.
5. That’s what he thought / taught by the teacher.
6. That’s what he thought / taught in his mind.
7. Don’t you want to leave / live this room?
8. Don’t you want to leave / live your life fully?
9. Their / There is a dog in the farm.
10. It is their / there domain of activity.
I. Underline the silent sounds and write the phonetic scr ipt.
1. Wednesday 2. Handkerchief 3. Plumber 4. Hour 5. Honest
6. Listen 7. Island 8. Pneumatic 9. Psychology 10. Knowledge
11. Subtle 12. Bouquet 13. Aisle 14. Womb 15. Know
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 21 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES II. Transcribe the following words, giving the correct past tense marker 1. Created
2. Granted 3. Locked 4. Pushed 5. Buzzed 6. Grabbed
7. Molded 8. Faded 9. Padded 10. Crowded III. Give the word its plural and transcribe into plural markers
1. Page 2. Judge 3. Buffalo 4. Kilo 5. Baby
6. Monkey 7. Book 8. Kite 9. Class 10. Bench
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 22 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Introduction: (ICS LAB) SITUATIONAL DIALOGUES / ROLE PLAY
Situational dialogues /role-play is the core of the co mmunicative approach. It is a practical dimension of enriching one ’s communication skills. Situational dialogues /role play refers to the changing of one ’s behavior to assume a role. Role play is one s uch method that creates a platform to improve the students ’ speaking skills, non-verbal communication and contextual usage of language and makes them understand how to fac e real life situations.
What is a role-play?
Role-play is the activity where one would be give n a role to play. The students can assume the role of any one- such as managers, chef, officers etc. and experie nce the joy of learning by getting involved in the character chosen by him. While planning the role of someone else, the student reflects on the character. By being involved in the character the student has to think in a broader way, correct his attitude and find facts and re sponsibilities that are required for an ideal
personality. Role- play allows a student to prepare thoroughly for real life s ituations and paves a way to think through the language at the initial sta ge.
Audio visual recording of the Role-plays can be don e. Students are given an opportunity to listen to and watch their performance; to spot their own mist akes; learn and correct them.
Fellow students will be able to correct some mist akes made by their peers. Students could be asked to listen for both great bits of language they would like to use themselves and some mistakes they hear.
Role-play improves speaking and listening skills. S tudents develop non-verbal communication techniques. They learn to use appropriate language in real life communication.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 23 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES 2.2 DO ’S 1. Understand and analyze the situation.
2. Identify your role and then act accordingly.
3. Frame sentences, questions and answers properly.
4. Be as natural as possible. Be yourself.
5. Check the posture and move a little.
6. Use your hands to express.
7. Maintain a good eye contact with the other person.
8. Make use of shortened forms of words like ‘shan’t, don’t etc., which are special for spoken form of language.
9. Understand the question and then answer.
10. Check voice modulation, stress, intonation and speed.
DON ’TS 1. Be in a hurry to say something.
2. Keep yourself detached from the role given.
3.Speak unchecked 4. Put on an accent or look animated.
5. Plant yourself to a particular point, bend or move excessively.
6.Use your hand excessively.
7.Avoid eye contact; roll your eyes/stare continuously.
8.Read out the written form of communication.
9. Answer urgently.
10. Be too fast / slow or shout unnecessarily.
2.2 Expressions used in different situations:
a) Self introduction and introducing others Good Morning! / Hello / My name is …….
Good Morning! / Hi …… I have joined…… I have Just moved……..
I’m from… I work for… I am the new…..
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 24 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES b) Greeting and Leave taking Hi, how are you?
Helo! What a lovely surprise! Hello! It’s nice meeting you again.
Hi! It’s great to see you too.
How ’re you and where have you been?
Just fine, thanks. How ’re things with you?
Everything ’s Okay. Thanks.
Wish I could have stayed longer, but I must run.
Sure, see you sometime. Bye, bye! Good bye/ see you/ so long/till we meet again, bye! c) Enquiring / make requests for help, to seek directions:
Excuse me, could you help me please.
At what time will the show start?
Is there a medical store close by?
Can you tell me the departure time of the bus?
Could I ask a favor of you?
I’m sorry to trouble you, but I need your help.
Would you mind helping me with this, please?
Certainly, I shall be glad to help.
Of course, by all means Sure. I ’d be glad to help Thank you / thank you very much/ thanks a lot.
You’re most welcome d) Complaining:
I regret to bring to your notice that some of the items that you have supplied have been slightly damaged.
I’m sorry to say this, but your music is too loud….
I’m sorry to trouble you, but there ’s a problem I ’d like to speak to you about.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 25 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES It would help if you have the leaking pipe repaired .
That’s very kind of you.
I hope you don ’t mind… I have a complaint to make.
My new washing machine is not working.
You dealer has not responded to my calls.
I’d like to have the piece replaced… Thank you for being so understanding and helpful… I’m afraid that I have a make a complaint about the computer I bought last week.
e) Offer suggestions, to advise or to persuade Stop using polythene bags immediately.
Let’s stop now Why don’t we stop now?
If I were you, I ’d stop now I suggest that you repeat these expressions twice each.
I think you should repeat these expressions as often as yo u can.
Let’s repeat these expressions for practice.
Why don’t we repeat these expressions a few more times?
I really advise you to repeat these expressions a several times.
You should repeat these expressions in order to perfect t hem.
They ought to repeat these expressions if they wish to speak fluently.
Why don’t you try repeating these expressions?
Could I persuade you to repeat these expressions as many times as possible?
f) Congratulate on an achievement, to express sympathy Congratulations! We are proud of you.
You really deserve this honor, Very well done! Keep it up! I’m sorry about what happened You mustn ’t let this depress you.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 26 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES I’m sure this won ’t happen again.
I’ve no doubt that you ’ll do much better next time.
I just got the sad news. This must be terrible blow to all of you.
It is a great loss indeed.
You must be brave.
g) To extend invitations and also to accept and decline them.
There ’s some good news I’m so happy to hear that.
My son is getting engaged I’ll be happy if you and your family could come.
Are you free tomorrow evening?
Why don’t you join us at a get-together?
Thank you for the invitation. We’ll certainly come.
It’ll be a pleasure.
Oh, sure I ’d love to come! Thank you for inviting me. I wish I could have come.
I’m afraid I will not be able to come.
I’m sorry, but I will have to miss the engagement.
What a pity I won’t be able to come! Thank you so much. We look forward to seeing you.
Thanks for saying yes. Be there on time.
It’s disappointing that you won ’t be there.
We’ll all miss you.
It can’t be helped. I suppose. But we’ll make it up some other time.
h) Make apologies and respond to them.
I must apologize for ……..
I’m terribly sorry about……….
Please accept my sincere apologies… I hope you ’ll excuse me… Please forgive me… MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 27 ELCS LAB MANUAL
DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES I’m so sorry… It won ’t happen again, I promise.
I’m really ashamed of myself.
It’s quite all right.
I really hope it won ’t happen again.
No need to feel so bad about it. These things happen.
i) Asking people ’s opinions and giving opinions to others.
I don’t think it’s possible I’d say …………… I think……. / I feel …….. / I believe……… In my mind ……….. / In my opinion…. / In my view… / It seems to me As far as I can see ……./ As far as I am concerned……….
I’m convinced ……………… What would you say about .................. ?
What do you think of ..................... ?
What is your opinion of .................... ?
What are your views on / about ........... ?
Are you in favor of ................. ?
j) Asking and giving directions.
How do I get to ......................... ?
What is the best way to ...................... ?
Where is ............................................. ?
Go straight on (until you come to .............. ) Turn back / go back Turn left / right ( in to …….. lone ) Go along ………… Cross …………… across ( across from the park )
Take the first / second road to the left right.
It’s on the left /right Straight MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 28 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
Opposite ( it’s opposite to the book store ) Near, ( it’s near to the bank ) Next to ( next to the bus station) Between ( between the post office & the law court ) At the end ( of)
On / at the corner ( it’s on the corner of the fourth lane ) Behind In front of Cross roads, junction.
ACTIVITY A) Write a conversation between two friends (one invites for the party and the other denies with reasons).
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 29 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 30
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES UNIT – III (CALL LAB) SYLLABLE AND SYLLABIFICATION
SYLLABLES Syllables are the phonological building blocks of w ords. There is at least one syllable in a word. Whenever we speak a word it spontaneously bre aks into syllables. A syllable consists of one vowel sound and two or more consonant sounds a s one unit. To understand this, look at the words below. When you pronounce them their syll ables in them become quite clear.
Example- 1. Go - one syllable 2. Ta-ble - two syllables 3. Au-di-tor - three syllables When we describe the structure of a syllable the sym bol C is used to represent consonant and
V is used to represent a vowel.
Example- Book-/buk/ (It has the structure of CVC) Types of Syllables in English Type-1 V I A /aI/ /eI/
Type-2 VC An at / / / t/ Type-3 CV know go /n /
/g / Type-4 CVC Cat but /k t/ /b t/ Type-5 CCV Try
grow /traI/ /gr / MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 31 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
Type-6 CCCV Spray spree /spre / /spr / Type-7 CCCVC Spread scream /spred/
/skr m/ Type-8 CCCVC strange /stre ndʒ/ Syllabification The number of vowel sounds generally indicates th e number of syllables in a word. Let us take a look at the different types of syllables in different words. A word can be mono syllabic
disyllabic poly syllabic in nature.
Monosyllabic: If a word has only one syllable, it is called as monosyl labic.
Ex- Hut - /hʌt / Fight - / fa ɪt / Screeched - / skri:tʃt / Disyllabic: If a word consists of two syllables,it is called as disylla ble.
Ex- Tea-cher- /ti:-tʃə/ Eng-lish- / ɪŋɡ-lɪʃ/ Mem-ber- /mem-b ə/ I-tem - /a ɪ-təm/ Trisyllabic : If a word consists of three syllables, it is called as trisyllable.
Ex- pu- ri-ty - /pj ʊə-rə-tɪ/ Pho-ne -tics - /fə-ne-tɪks/ Te-le-phon e - /te-lɪ-fəʊn/ Note- To divide a word into syllables always go by the pronunciation but not by the spelling of the word.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 32 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES EXERCISES SYLLABLE STRUCTURE :
Activity -1 Transcribe the following words, and divide them into syllables.
Word Syllabification No. of syllables 1. Management 2. Linguistics 3. Register 4. Day
5. Episode 6. Interview 7. Pronunciation 8. Raider MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 33
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES (ICS LAB) DESCRIBING OBJECTS/ SITUATIONS/ PEOPLE A. Objectives
To develop oral communication skills.
To become fluent in thought and speech To enable students to describe with ease the physica l attributes of a person, place or an event.
To enable the students with good use of tenses To make students familiar with the use of appropriate terminology in place of long sentences To develop the skill of using question tags B. Content
Describing objects is one way of communicating in formation. By and large, descriptions can range from general to specific, from qualitative to quantitative descriptions. To be able to describe t hings properly, a good observation would have to be made and that observati on would have to be translated to communicable language. Communicating as a process skill can be
done in different ways.
Descriptions could either be qualitative or quantitative. Both convey meanings but one is more precise than the other especially if co mparison is involved.
If you are describing anything to a person who is physically in front of you, you can rely on non-verbal communication in addition verbal communication. But in a telephonic conversation or writing you have to depend on verbal communication alone. And in video conf erence, you have to depend on body language such as hand movements, eye contact, po sture and facial
expression along with the verbal part of communication.
In case of an object you need to know what the object is, wh at is it useful for, what its physical and technical features are and what its unique features are. While describing a person, his nativity, achievements, personality MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 34 ELCS LAB MANUAL
DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES and physical appearance are important. In the same way while describing a process, one should mention what the process is, what it is conducted for, what are the necessary equipment, steps involved and t he results at every stage that are essential to take up the task. And for describing a situation, details about
what happened, who were the persons involved, how it happened and what was the situation at that point of time need to be mentione d.
For describing anything studying and understanding i s very important.
Collect information related to the topic which you can use as supplement material. Then organize all your ideas based on a p roper thematic or chronological order. While organizing your ide as, the following features should be kept in mind.
Important Features Brevity: You should not use lengthy sentences and verbose vocabulary to describe anything. Limit your words and use one wor d substitutes, idioms and phrases which directly communicate a lengthy expression. Do not let your audience drown in the ocean of description. Do limit yourself to important a nd
direct points that allow the reader or listener to im agine and understand clearly.
One word substitution, simple language and direc t sentences would lend brevity.
Clarity: Writer can get clarity of thought only with complete knowledge on the topic. Once he/she is clear in his/her mind, clarity in description can be achieved through direct and complete description of each stage that is well linked with the previous stages as well as the stages that follow.
Factual Correctness: Experiment project or process should be done by yourself so that you are aware of complete facts and f igures of it. You ought to have thorough knowledge on the result of each stage, so that you are giving factual information at every step. Don ‘t depend on your imagination while describing anything as this might mislead the audi ence. Your precision in
expressing factual information will allow your audi ence to understand the topic better.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 35 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Describing a process (i) Face- to-Face: A process is a series of actions or operations done to achieve
the end result. Thus, it requires systematic, logical, and factual data along with the skill of narration. You are expected to narra te a process in technical language that facilitates your listener not only to comprehend the process of an experiment or a process but also help him repeat the same with confidence.
Student must have complete knowledge about the enti re process. You should organize the entire process in a systematic manner. So, be careful with this and always highlight or repeat the important steps or points . Prepare a caution list as part of process description and give it to your audien ce at an appropriate time, either at the beginning, at the concerned step or at the end.
You can adopt first person, second person or third person narration while writing the description of a process, but wh ichever you select, stick to it and practice. If you forget any important informati on, or want to give a specific caution you can add it as a note at the end of the complete description. Writing a process has got its own advantage and disadvantage: Advantage : You can
write, edit and re-edit the information many times until you a re satisfied with your work. You can also take expert opinion if you think it can help you in any way.
Disadvantage: You cannot demonstrate anything physically and you cannot depend on non- verbal communication aids. You have to express everything through words, yet be brief.
(ii) Non-Verbal Communication: If you are describing a process through video conference or in front of a listener, you can re ly a lot on non-verbal communication. Arrange everything earlier so that you are not running here and there, and, thus, creating a confusing, panic - ridden atmosphere. Ensure complete and clear visibility to the audience while demonstrating any process.
Maintain eye contact with the audience as this gives you a good hold on the listener. You need to concentrate on the demonstrati on and the audience simultaneously and this needs practice.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 36 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Describing a Situation Describing a situation requires good understanding of the situat ion. For this,
you should study and analyze the situation before-h and.
1. Gather information regarding the people associated with it and their relation to the incident.
2. Collect the information about the date and time of th e situation.
3. Do a comprehensive survey of the facts and arrange them in order.
4. Then gather information regarding the result or the outcome of the situation.
5. Arrange all these facts in an order and present them usi ng the same techniques which you would use to describe a process .
Describing a person You should gather as much information as you can a bout a person before describing him/her. The information like nativity, identity, achievements, ideological association and person ality is needed. For example, if you set out to describe Vivekananda, you cannot do it without mentioning his
ideology, morality, contribution and personality. If you are describing Badal Sarkar, you cannot complete it without mentio ning his contribution to theatre, the awards he won and his popularity. For desc ribing a known person, his family and nativity are important but for an un known person whom you have seen in a train, bus or at the mall, you have to depend on his physical
appearance alone. If you can show any kind of diagra mmatical representation to the audience, it‘s a welcome change. Otherwise, you should use to you r word power to describe a person. Following an order, being clear, brief an d direct would help the audience identify the person quickly and accurately.
Describing an Object It is almost the same as describing a person.
1- Identify the object, its uses, its physical appeara nce, and its unique features.
2- Try to gather some information regarding its histor y and contemporary plans.
3- Demonstrate the object to your audience and clearly desc ribe each part separately.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 37 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES 4- Though it is an object, logically connecting one aspe ct with another is very important for the audience to understand it effectively.
Do’s 1- Use proper language 2- Understand the medium through which you are describing something. 3- Use the necessary sentence linkers.
4- Give clarity.
5- Arrangement of facts should be in sequence.
6- Take care of non-verbal communication in face- to-face, video conference or TV programme.
7- The focus on voice quality and clarity is a must on a telephone medium. 8- Be crisp and to the point.
9- Give accurate and updated information.
Don’ts 1- Use the same techniques for all media to describe something. 2- Use round about language.
3- Write complicated sentences. 4- Use ambiguous language.
5- Jumble ideas.
6- Show inappropriate body language.
7- Be in hurry to finish the matter without allow ing the listener to understand it totally.
8- Use long and ambiguous expressions.
9- Indulge in imaginative, emotional and impression istic statements.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 38 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Vocabulary Adjectives Used to Describe a Person
Tall Short Curly hair Long hair Sharp nose Middle-aged Smart clothes Fat Thin Short hair Wavy hair Blunt nose Teenage Tidy clothes Fair Dark White hair Broom hair Well-built In 40s Casual clothes Dull Pale Dark- eyed Blue- eyed Young In 50s Messy clothes
Faint slim Bright- eyed Cat -eyed Elderly Bald Bespectacled Adjectives Used to Describe Physical Features of an Object Curved Square Conical angular Cubed Long Straight Rounded Jagged Flat Rectangular Circular Small Tiny Oval-shaped
Big Spherical Irregular Sloped Tall Describing an Object Example-1 Touch screen is a video display screen that receives an input from the finger touch. The screen is covered with a pla stic layer. There are invisible beams of infrared light behind the screen. The user enters data by touching
icons or menus on the screen. Most touch screen comput ers use sensors to detect touch of a finger. Touch screen is commo nly used in ATMs, multinational companies etc.
Example-2 A trackball can be used as an alternative to a mouse. This device has buttons similar to those on a mouse. It has a large rotating ball on the top. The body of the track ball is not moved. The ball is rol led with fingers. The position of the cursor on the screen is controlled by rotating th e ball.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 39 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES An advantage of the trackball is that it takes less space to move than mouse. Trackball is often included in laptop comput ers. It can also be used as a
separate input device along with standard desktop comput ers.
Describing People (in conversation) Example:
Vanita: Hi mam! I am Vanita. I have recently joined in this college, could I know about our staff?
Kavya: Ofcourse, the first cabin is for the HOD Dr. J. Animesh. He is a tall, slim, black- eyed, Curly haired and a well natured person.
Vanita: And the next cabin?
Kavya: It‘s Surana Sir ‘s. He is an elderly man, good natured and the senior most of all.
Vanita: Who is in the third cabin?
Kavya: It‘s Subhashini mam. She is a friendly lady with a fai r complexion. Three more ladies are in that cabin MS. Lavanya a calm lady, MS. Madavi the youngest one in the department and MS. Sahithi the thin lady.
Vanita: Thank you for the information. I have a class now. I will talk to you later.
OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 40 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES OBSERVATION NOTES
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 41 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES UNIT – IV (CALL LAB)
STRESS & INTONATION WORD STRESS Word Accent In phonetics, accent / stress means expending extr a breath on a particular syllable in a word .
it is a matter of greater prominence and greater audibil ity. Accent is very important to make our speech intelligible. The mark (/) on the top of a syllable in a word indicate s that particular syllable is stressed.
Stress shifts Rules of Word Stress in English There are two very simple rules about word stress.
One word has only one stress.
We can only stress vowels, not consonants.
Functional shift of stress There are a number of words of two syllables in which the accent ual pattern depends on whether the word is used as a noun, an adjective or a verb. When the word is used as a noun or an adjective, the stress is on the first syllable. When the word is used as a verb, the stress is on the second syllable. Here are a few examples-
Noun / Adjective Verb /absent ab/sent /object ob/ject /subject sub/ject /permit per/mit
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 42 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Rules of word stress Here are a few rules of word stress. These will help you loca te stress in words.
1. In disyllabic words with weak prefixes, the stress is on the root .
Examples: a΄bove a΄cross be΄fore be΄come 2. In disyllabic nouns or adjectives, the first syllable is stressed.
Examples: ΄campus ΄factor ΄power ΄duty 3. In disyllabic verbs, the second syllable is stressed.
Examples: per΄form re΄fuse es΄cape con΄test In many disyllabic words the stress pattern shifts according to the usage of that word as a ‘noun ’ or a ‘verb’.
Examples: Nouns Verbs ΄advent ad΄vent ΄affix af΄fix ΄digest di΄gest 4. If a compound word is a noun, or a combination of a noun and another noun (noun+noun)
or an adjective and a noun (adj + noun) the stress is on the first part.
Example: ΄pinpoint ΄glasshouse ΄palmtop ΄counterpart 5. If a compound verb is an adjective or a combination of an ad jective and the past participle of a verb (adj +p.p), the last part is stressed.
Examples: clear- ΄headed Out- ΄bound Far- ΄sighted Short- ΄tempered 6. If a compound word is a verb or a combination of a prepositi on and a verb (prep+ verb), the last part is stressed.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 43 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Examples: over΄power under΄stand draw΄back interre΄late 7. In phrasal verbs the prepositions are stressed
Examples: turn΄off break΄down set΄off 8. Words ending in derivational suffixes such as –ic, -ical, -ically, -ious, -ial, -ially have the stress on the syllable preceding the suffix.
Examples: po΄etic pa΄thetic ener΄getic eco΄nomical e΄lectrical am΄bitious con΄fidential con΄fidentially 9. Words ending with –tion, -cian, -sion, and –ion, have stress on the penultimate (last but one) syllable .
Example: dramati΄zation ma΄gician in΄version situ΄ation 10. Words ending with –phy, -gy, -try, -cy, -fy, -al and –ity have accent on the third syllable from the end.
Example: ste΄nography a΄cidify tech΄nology ac΄cidental ge΄ometry responsi΄bility ac΄curacy pho΄tography 11. Words ending with –meter have stress on the last syllable before –meter.
Examples: ther΄mometer spee΄dometer cen΄timeter 12. Inflectional suffixes –s, -es, - d, -ed, -ing and derivational suffixes such as –age, -er, -ful, -ance, -ess, -hood, -ice, -ish, -ive, -less, -ly, -ment, -nes s, -or, -ship, -ter, and –zen do not normally affect the stress pattern.
Examples: ΄term ΄terms ΄bus ΄buses de΄mand de΄manded ac΄cept ac΄cepta nce ΄child ΄childish MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 44 ELCS LAB MANUAL
DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES 13. Compound words of two different words when pronounced individually, stress is on both words; but when put together, then meaning changes and so does the stress pattern .
Examples: green΄fly a fly green in color ΄greenfly aphid ΄black ΄bird a bird black in color ΄blackbird a singing bird Similarly, ΄black ΄board a board black in color ΄blackboard ACTIVITY Syllabify and mark the stress on the following words.
Enrich Orthography Authorized Guardian Optical Opportunity Remedial Courteous Construct (Verb) Pic nic Present (Noun) Cupboard Education Photography Teac her INTONATION A. Objectives
To enable student to speak with correct intonation a nd pronunciation To make them identify the intention of speaker based on the in tonation To enable the students to familiarize themselves wi th the use of tone.
To avoid the common errors in pronunciation and int onation B. Content Introduction: In English, there are different tones that th e English speakers use, and the ones you must know are described here.
In previous chapters we dealt with the word s tress in English language.
In this chapter, we will learn the intonation of Engl ish words and sentences.
Intonation in English cannot be compared with the intonation in any other language, and you need to learn the tones and the logic behind them continuously as you are a foreign learner.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 45 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Pitch The pitch of the voice is determined by the frequency of the vibration of
the vocal cords, i.e., the numbers of times they open and close in a second. The patterns of variation of pitch of the voice (i.e., the fall or the rise) constitute the intonation of a language. If you say, ―Put it down! ‖ with a falling tone, the pitch of you r voice will mov e from a high level to a low level. It can be illustrated thus:
Put it D O W N ! If you say the same sentence with a rising tone, the pitch of your voice will
move from low to high, as shown below:
N ! W O D Put it
Types of intonation: Based on the variations and purposes of interaction between people, the intonation can be divided into five types. They are:
1. Falling intonation (the glide-down) 2. Rising intonation (the glide- up) 3. Falling-Rising intonation 4. Rising-Falling intonation 5. Neutral (level) intonation
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 46 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES 1. Falling intonation ( ) The falling tone is sometimes referred as the glide-down. It consists of a fall
in the pitch of the voice from a high level to a low level. It is marked with ( ) The Falling Tone:
It is used when the pitch of the voice moves from a high level to a low level. It is marked as [\].
The falling tone is generally used in:
1. Ordinary statements.
a. It was quite \good .
b. I liked it very\ much .
a. \ splendid ! b. How extra \ ordinary! 3. Commands a. Go and open the \ window.
b. Take it a \ way.
4. Questions beginning with words like what, how , wher e, and why.
a. What is the \ matter?
b. Where are you \ going?
5. Question tags (expecting agreement) a. It was a good film, \ wasn ’t it?
b. Its pleasant today, \ isn’t it?
The Rising Tone:
It is used when the pitch of the voice moves from a low level to a high level .It is marked [/].
The rising tone is generally used in:
1. Polite requests a. Go and open the / window.
b. Close the / door.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 47 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES / /
2. Incomplete statements.
a. I’ll buy you a / dress (If I go there).
b. It’s seven o ’ clock (and she hasn ’t got up as yet).
3. Yes/No Questions a. Are they / coming?
b. Is father at / home?
4. Question Tags (Expecting disagreement).
a. You are a \ gardener, aren ’t you?
b. It was a good \ film, wasn ’t it?
5. Greetings, partings, apologies, encouragement, etc.
a. Good / bye.
b. I’m so / sorry.
c. Good / evening.
The Fall – Rise Tone:
The falling-rising tone is normally used for specia l implications, not verbally expressed. It consists of a fall from high to low and then a rise to the middle of the voice. This tone can be used either on one syllable or different syllables of a word or sentence. It is marked as [V].
Let us look at the following examples.
a. She is Vbeautiful. (But not very clever) b. The houses are Vnice (but perhaps the people are not).
c. \ I / can (I am almost sure you can ’t) ACTIVITIY:
1. Try and say the following utterances using falling tone.
1. Sit down 2. What is the time?
3. She is a doctor 4. He dances very well, doesn ’t he?
5. What a pretty girl! 2. Try and say the following utterances using rising t one.
1. Shut the window.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 48 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES 2. Are you married?
3. Good Morning.
4. You should keep on trying.
5. He is a good student, isn ’t he?
3. Try and say the following utterances using falling- rising tone 1. When are you coming?
2. Sachin has retired.
3. The train has left.
4. What are you saying?
5. Sumanth was sick OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 49 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 50 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES (ICS LAB)
INFORMATION TRANSFER A. Objectives To understand what graphics convey To learn the various examples of graphics To know the use of visuals in seminars, conferences, etc
To provide better leadership opportunities To learn how to organize a presentation to lure the audience.
To make students familiar with the content developm ent for or al presentations To gain experience in oral presentation B. Content Introduction (Information Transfer): Graphics that can be included to put information or data in continues writing. They facilitate in showing
comparisons and trends over a period of time. Dia grams show the development of something through different stages of progress. A nd finally the students learn the pictorial representation of various steps involve d in solving a problem.
TOOLS Tables: A simple form of graphic representation is a table, in which data are arranged in horizontal rows and vertical columns that ca rry labels to identify what they represent.
Uses of a table: A table is both a mode of visual communication and also a means of arranging data. The use of tables is pervasiv e throughout all communication, research and data analysis. Tables appe ar in print media, handwritten notes, computer software, architectu ral ornamentation, traffic signs and many other places. A table consists of an ordered arrangement of rows and
One such example is as follows. The table bel ow contains information about the production of essential supplies in from 1993 to 1998.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 51 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Production in India 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 Rice 57.06 48.98 59.01 60.8 62.22
Wheat 35.76 32.21 50.89 75.43 80.79 Sugarcane 25.11 24.10 28.08 29.31 30.08 Tea 15.88 20.11 25.77 30.80 48.92 Coffee 12.00 10.86 18.25 23.62 40.77 Bar charts
A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can also be plotted horizontally. It is very useful if you are trying to record certain information whether it is continuous or not continuous data.
The above bar-chart lists the number of seats allocated to each party group in European elections in 1999 and 2004.
Pie-chart A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is propor tional to the quantity it MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 52
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES represents. Together, the sectors create a full di sk. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced.
Pie chart of populations of English native speakers Line graphs A line graph is a picture designed to express wo rds. This is especially true when two or more sets of numbers are related in some way and how they vary in relation to one another.
This graph shows the robberies took place in the year 2009 in Hyderabad.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 53 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Flow chart A flowchart is a common type of diagram that represents an algorithm
or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. This diagrammatic re presentation can give a step- by-step solution to a given problem. Data is represented in these boxes, and arrows connecting them represent flow / direction of flow of data. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managin g a process or program in
Uses of flow charts Flowcharts are helpful in understanding a complicated process. This is especially true if you have to make decisions and do different steps depending on those decisions. By looking at a flowchart you ca n visually follow different paths through the chart. For each step on a flowchart you can ask yourself "Is
this step necessary? Can it be improved?" A simple flowchart representing a process for dealing with a non-functioning lamp MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 54 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES
Maps and plans A map is a visual representation of an area —a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of tha t space such as objects, regions, and themes. They show outlines and boun daries, names or codes of areas within them and feature such as roads, coas tlines, rivers, buildings and
The map below represents the roadways and the oth er map represents the distance between cities.
Pictogram A pictogram or a pictograph is an ideogram that conveys it ‘s meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. They strive to communicate as clearly as possible by removing detail s and focusing on the simplicity of the likeness between a physical object a nd how they are most
This makes pictograms incredibly potent at delivering clear messages as long as the receiver understands the simplified r epresentation. Pictograms form part of our daily lives through their use in medication, transport, computers, etc.
They support interactive non- verbal communication.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 55 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 56
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES OBSERVATION NOTES MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 57 ELCS LAB MANUAL
DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES UNIT – V (CALL LAB) ERRORS IN PRONUNCIATION Importance of Pronunciation
In order to speak correct English, pronunciation shou ld be used correctly. By using careful speech habits in one’s speech, simple mistakes can be avoided. Learning ap propriate pronunciation techniques give one the confidence to avoid common errors in speech.
Common errors in pronunciation Introduction: Proper English pronunciation can be a big problem for some ESL learners and more difficult for some students t han for others. A student ‘s native language determines, for the most part, the degree of difficulty and the types of difficulties students will have. ESL students whose native language is
not English have a much harder time than th ose whose native language is English, Spanish, Portuguese or French. But despite the differences between countries, there are certain mistakes that are the most common among ESL students all over the world. Here, we will see not o nly the problems in pronunciation, but also how to overcome them.
Don't say: acrossed | Do say: across Comment: It is easy to confuse "across" with "crossed" but better to keep them separate.
Don't say: Old-timer's disease | Do say: Alzheimer‟s disease Comment: While it is a disease of old-timers, it is named for the German neurologist, Dr. Alois Alzheimer.
Don't say: Antartic | Do say: Antarctic Comment: Just think of an arc of ants (an ant arc) and that s hould help you keep the [c] in the pronunciation of this word.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 58 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Don't say: athelete, atheletic | Do say:
athlete, athletic Comment: Two syllables are enough for "athlete." Don't say: bob wire | Do say: barbed wire Comment: No, this word wasn't named for anyone named ''Bob;'' it should be "barbed wire," although the suffix -ed, meaning ''hav ing,'' is fading away in the
Don't say: a blessing in the skies | Do say: a blessing in disguise Comment: This phrase is no blessing if it comes from the skies. (Pronounce it correctly and help maintain the disguise.) Don't say: cannidate | Do say: candidate Comment: You aren't being clever to drop the [d] in this word. R emember, it is
the same as "candy date." (This should help guys remem ber how to prepare for dates, too.) Don't say: close | Do say: clothes Comment: The [th] is a very soft sound likely to be overlooked. Show your linguistic sensitivity and always pronounce it.
Don't say: coronet | Do say: cornet Comment: Playing a crown (coronet) will make you about as popular as wearing a trumpet (cornet) on your head; reason enough to keep these two words straight.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 59 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Don't say: diptheria | Do say: diphtheria Comment: The ''ph'' in this word is pronounced [f], not [p].
Don't say: doggy dog world | Do say: dog eat dog world Comment: The world is even worse than you think if you think it merely a "doggy-dog world." Sorry to be the bearer of such bad news.
Don't say: drownd | Do say: drown Comment: You add the [d] only to the past tense and past participle.
Don't say: elec'toral | Do say: e'lectoral Comment: The accent is on the second, not the third, syllable and there is no [i] in it; not "electorial." (By the way, the same applies to "mayoral" and "pastoral.") Don't say: excape | Do say: escape
Comment: The good news is, if you say "excape," you've maste red the prefix ex- because its meaning does fit this word. The bad news is, you don't use this prefix on "escape." Don't say: excetera | Do say: et cetera Comment: Latin for "and" (et) "the rest" (cetera) are actual ly two words that
probably should be written separately.
Don't say: fedral | Do say: federal MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 60 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Comment: Syncopation of an unaccented vowel is fairly common in rapid
speech but in careful speech it should be avoided.
Don't say: fisical | Do say: fiscal Comment: In fact, we don't seem to like any consonants togeth er. Here is another word, like athlete and film that is often f orced to swallow an unwanted vowel.
Don't say: foilage | Do say: foliage Comment: Here is another case of metathesis, place-switching of sounds.
Remember, the [i] comes after the [l], as in related "folio." Don't say: forte | Do say: fort Comment: The word is spelled "forte" but the [e] is pronounced only when speaking of music, as a "forte passage." The words for a strong point and a stronghold are pronounced the same: [fort].
Don't say: heighth | Do say: height Comment: The analogy with "width" misleads many of us in the pronunciation of this word. 'erb herb Does, ''My friend Herb grows 'erbs, '' sound right to you?
This is a U.S. oddity generated by the melting pot (mixed dialects). Initial [h] is always pronounced outside America and should be in al l dialects of English.
Don't say: hi-archy | Do say: hierarchy Comment: Remember, hierarchies go higher than you might think. This one is pronounced "higher archy" and not "high archy." Don't say: in parenthesis | Do say: in parentheses MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 61
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Comment: No one can enclose an expression in one parenthesis; at least two parentheses are required.
Don't say: irregardless | Do say: regardless Comment: "-Less" already says ''without'' so there is no need to repeat the same sentiment with "ir-." idn't isn't Again, the s truggle of [s] before [n].
Don't say: jewlery | Do say: jewelry Comment: The root of this word is "jewel" and that doesn't change for either "jeweler" or "jewelry." The British add a syllable: "jewellery" Don't say: lambast | Do say: lambaste Comment: Better to lambaste the lamb than to baste him remem ber, the words
rhyme. "Bast" has nothing to do with it.
Don't say: libel | Do say: liable Comment: You are liable for the damages if you are successfully sued for libel. But don't confuse these discrete words.
Don't say: long lived | Do say: long-lived Comment: This compound is not derived from ''to live longly '' (you can't say that) but from ''having a long life'' and should be pronounced accordingly . The plural stem, live(s), is always used: "short-lived, " "many- lived," "triple- lived." Don't say: miniture | Do say: miniature
Comment: Here is another word frequently syncopated. Don't leav e out the third syllable, [a].
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 62 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Don't say: mute | Do say: moot Comment: The definition of "moot" is moot (open to debate) but not the
pronunciation: [mut] and not [myut].
Don't say: mis'chievous | Do say: mischievous Comment: It would be mischievous of me not to point out the frequent misplacement of the accent on this word. Remember, it i s accented the same as mischief. Look out for the order of the [i] and [e] in the spelling, too and don't add another [i] in the ending ( not mischievious).
Don't say: off ten | Do say: often Comment: The [t] was silent in the pronunciation of the word "often" until circa 19th century English when more people became able to write and spell.
Today the [t] is widely pronounced in England , the British Isles, Australia and in some regions of the U.S. Most U.S. dictionaries show both pronunc iations, frequently showing the unspoken [t] as the most pref erred.
Don't say: ordinance | Do say: ordnance Comment: You may have to use ordnance to enforce an ordinan ce but you should not pronounce the words the same.
Don't say: parlament | Do say: parliament Comment: Although some dictionaries have given up on it, there should be a [y] after [l]: [pahr-lyê-mênt] Don't say: pottable | Do say: potable MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 63
ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Comment: The adjective meaning "drinkable" rhymes with "flo atable" and is not to be confused with the one that means "capable o f being potted." Don't say: perscription | Do say: prescription
Comment: Same as above. It is possible that we simply confus e "pre-" and "per-" since both are legitimate prefixes.
Don't say: prespire | Do say: perspire Comment: "Per-" has become such a regular mispronunciation of "pre-," many people now correct themselves where they don't need to.
Don't say: pronounciation | Do say: pronunciation Comment: Just as "misspelling" is among the most commonly mi sspelled words, "pronunciation" is among the most commonly m ispronounced words.
Don't say: prostrate | Do say: prostate Comment: Though a pain in the prostate may leave a man prostrate, the gland contains no [r].
Don't say: Realator | Do say: Realtot Comment: As you avoid the extra vowel in "masonry," remember to do the same for "realtor," the guy who sells what the mason creates.
Don't say: silicone | Do say: silicon Comment: Silicon is the material they make computer chips from but implants are made of silicone.
Don't say: snuck | Do say: sneaked MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 64 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Comment: I doubt we will get "snuck" out of the language any time soon but
here is a reminder that it really isn't a word.
Don't say: suit | Do say: suite Comment: If you don't wear it (a suit [sut]), then it is a suite [sweet], as in a living room suite or a suite of rooms.
Don't say: supremist | Do say: supremacist Comment: This word is derived from "supremacy," not "supreme." A supremist would be someone who considers himself supreme. You know there is no one like that.
Exercises Identify and mark the tone in the following statements.
1. Come here. (Command) 2. Could you open the window, please?
3. How dare you to enter into my room without my permission?
4. I am going.
5. Did you remember to buy the milk?
6. Where did you buy that?
7. This is our college.
8. Did you attend the classes yesterday?
9. Switch off all the fans and lights.
10. It is a wonderful weather today. Isn ‘t it?
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 65 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Neutralization of Mother Tongue Influence OBJECTIVE:
To enable the learners to understand and use a neutral accent that can be easily understood by peop le across the globe.
Ten Tips to neutralize mother tongue influence:
How do you train yourself?
By inculcating certain practices in your dail y lifestyle, these will get you closer to s ounding like a native English speaker and equip you with a global accent -- and you will speak not American or British English, but correct English.
This is the first step to learn any other accent, be it American or British or Australian.
Lisa Mojsin, head trainer, director and founder of the Accurate English Training Company in Los Angeles, offers these tips to help 'neutralize' you r accent or rather do away with the local twang, as you speak.
i. Observe the mouth movements of those who speak English well and try to imitate them.
When you are watching television, observe the mouth movements of the speakers. Repeat what they are saying, while imitating the intonation and rhyt hm of their speech.
ii. Until you learn the correct intonation and rhythm of English, slow your speech down.
If you speak too quickly, and with the wrong intonati on and rhythm, native speakers will have a hard time understanding you.
Don't worry about your listener getting impatient with your slow speech -- it is more important that everything you say be understood.
iii. Listen to the 'music' of English.
Do not use the 'music' of your native language when you speak English. Each language has its own way of 'singing'.
iv. Use the dictionary.
Try and familiarize yourself with the phonetic symbols of your dictionary. Look up the correct pronunciation of words that are hard for you to say.
v. Make a list of frequently used words that you find difficult to pronounce and ask someone who speaks the language well to pronounce them for you.
Record these words, listen to them and practice saying them. Listen and read at the same time.
vi. Buy books on tape.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 66 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES Record yourself reading some sections of the book. Compare the sound of your English with that of the person reading the book on the tape.
vii. Pronounce the ending of each word.
Pay special attention to 'S' and 'ED' endings. This will help you strengthen the mouth muscles that you use when you speak English.
viii. Read aloud in English for 15-20 minutes every day.
Research has shown it takes about three months of daily practice to develop strong mouth muscles for speaking a new language.
ix. Record your own voice and listen for pronunciation mistakes.
Many people hate to hear the sound of their voice and avoid listening to themselves speak. However, this is a very important exercise because doing it will help you become conscious of the mistakes you are making.
x. Be patient.
You can change the way you speak but it won't happen ove rnight. People often expect instant results and give up too soon. You can change the way you sound if you are willing to put some effort into it.
Quick tips Various versions of the English language exist. Begin by identifying the category you fall into an d start by improving the clarity of your speech.
MRCET EAMCET CODE: MLRD www.mrcet.ac.in 67 ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES (ICS) EXTEMPORE
Aims and Objectives To develop a simple, balanced, and orderly speech design.
To shape and arrange your main points.
To use transitions to make your speech flow smoothly To prepare introductions that capture attention, establish credibility, and focus your speech.
To prepare conclusions that summarize your message, provide closure, and give the audience something to remember.
EXTEMPORE- PUBLIC SPEAKING Public speaking is the process and act of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain a listening audience. Public speaking is commonly understood as face- to-face speaking between individuals and an audience for the purpose of communication. In short, being a good public speaker can enhance your reputation, boost your self-
confidence, and open up countless opportunities.
Public Speaking Tips Twelve Steps to Great Presentations 1. Know your audience – what do they care about?
2. The main takeaways that you want to present 3. Preparation – Research your topic 4. The Room – Do a room check.
5. Audio Visual – Have a plan B.
6. Think positively.
7. Cope with your nerves 8. Eye contact – Windows to other worlds 9. Opener – How you start sets the tone for the whole talk.
10. Own the stage.
11. Keep track of time.
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ELCS LAB MANUAL DEPARTMENT OF HUMANITIES & SCIENCES