Professional English Notes

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Academic year: 2023.0
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(Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad, Approved by AICTE - A ccredited by NBA & NAAC – ‘A’ Grade - ISO 9001:2015 Certified) Maisammaguda, Dhulapally, Komaplly, Secunderabad – 500100, Telangana State, India.




English is a tool for global communication and is the dominant language which is sweeping almost all the fields in the world. It has become a necessity for people to speak in English comfortably, if th ey want to enter the global workforce. Hence, the course is designed to help the students to meet the global standards. Each unit focuses on English skill-set to improve: Interview skills, giving presentations and professional etiquette.


1. To enrich students to express themselves appropriately and fluently in professional contexts.

2. To enhance their employability through regular participation in group discussions and interview skills.

3. To lay foundation with writing strategies for the future workplace needs.

4. To acquaint students with different components of professional presentation skills.

5. To equip students with necessary training in listening to comprehend dialects of English language.


UNIT-I Listening - Listening for General Details.

Speaking - Description of Pictures, Places, Objects and Persons Extract - The summary of Asimov ’s Nightfall Grammar - If clauses Vocabulary - Technical Vocabulary Writing - Paragraph Writing

Unit –II Listening -Listening for Specific Details Speaking - Oral presentations NOTE: Listening and Speaking tasks are solely for lab purpose and not for testing in the examinations.

Extract - A literary analysis of Asimov ’s Nightfall Grammar - Transformation of Sentences Vocabulary - Idioms Writing -Abstract Writing Unit –III

Listening - Listening for Gist ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 3 Speaking - Mock Interviews NOTE: Listening and Speaking tasks are solely for lab purpose and not for testing in the


Extract - Character sketches of Asimov ’s Nightfall ’s - protagonists and antagonists - Dr.

Susan Calvin, Mike Donovan, Stephen Byerley, Francis Quinn Grammar - Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Vocabulary - Standard Abbreviations (Mini Project) Writing - Job Application – Cover letter Unit – IV

Listening - Listening for Vocabulary Speaking - Telephonic Expressions NOTE: Listening and Speaking tasks are solely for lab purpose and not for testing in the examinations.

Extract - Theme of Asimov ’s Nightfall Grammar - Auxiliary verbs, Degrees of Comparison Vocabulary - Word Analogy Writing - Job Application - Resume Unit – V

Listening - Critical Listening (for attitude and Opinion) Speaking - Group discussion NOTE: Listening and Speaking tasks are solely for lab purpose and not for testing in the examinations.

Extract -Asimov ’s Nightfall : A Science Fiction Grammar - Common Errors, Prepositions Vocabulary - Homonyms, homophones and homographs Writing - Report Writing * Isaac Asimov ’s Nightfall for intensive and extensive reading

* Exercises apart from the text book shall also be referred for classroom tasks.


1. Nightfall, Isaac Asimov ‎;‎‎Robert Silverberg , 1990 2. Practical English Usage. Michael Swan. OUP. 1995.

3. Remedial English Grammar. F.T. Wood. Macmillan.2007 4. On Writing Well. William Zinsser. Harper Resource Book. 2001 5. Study Writing. Liz Hamp-Lyons and Ben Heasly. Cambridge University Press. 2006.

6. Communication Skills. Sanjay Kumar and Pushpa Lata. Oxford University Press. 2011.

7. Exercises in Spoken English. Parts. I-III. CIEFL, Hyderabad. Oxford University Press ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 4 COURSE OUTCOMES:

Students will be able to:

 Analyze and interpret a diverse range of engineering concepts through the synthesis of information  Understand the impact of professional engineering solutions is societal contexts and demonstrate its knowledge  Achievecommunicative ability in their personal and professional relations with clarity of

speech and creativity in content  Function effectively as an individual and a team; and would be able to prepare themselves to be market ready  Comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, manage projects and make effective presentations


Listening - Listening for General Details 06 Speaking - Description of Pictures, Places, Objects and Persons 06 Grammar - If clauses 13 Vocabulary - Technical Vocabulary 16 Writing - Paragraph Writing 17

Unit –II Listening - Listening for Specific Details 20 Speaking - Oral presentations 20 Grammar - Transformation of Sentences 23 Vocabulary - Idioms 27

Writing - Abstract Writing 29 Unit –III Listening - Listening for Gist 31 Speaking - Mock Interviews 31 Grammar - Transitive and Intransitive Verbs 33

Vocabulary - Standard Abbreviations 39 Writing - Job applications -Cover Letter 40 Unit – IV Listening - Listening for Vocabulary 44 Speaking - Telephonic Expressions 44

Grammar - Auxiliary verbs and Degrees of Comparison 47 Vocabulary - Word Analogy 51 Writing - Job Application –Resume 52 Unit – V Listening - Critical Listening 59

Speaking - Group Discussion 59 Grammar - Common Errors and Prepositions 64 Vocabulary - Homonyms, Homophones and Homographs 72 Writing - Report Writing 73 ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

6 UNIT – I DESCRIPTION OF PICTURES, PLACES, OBJECTS AND PERSONS Description of pictures A picture speaks a thousand words!

Learning how to describe pictures, places, objects and persons coherently is an essential skill for students. Effective descriptive words convey factual information, mood and character in addition to appearance. The best descriptions draw us in and keep us rapt with attention, placing us in a scene.

The details must appeal to our senses. Phrases that merely label (like tall, middle-aged, and average) bring no clear image to our minds. Since most people form their first impression of someone through visual clues, it makes sense to describe our characters using visual images.

A picture description is an ideal way of practicing your English vocabulary in all sorts of fields. And there's also a benefit for everyday life – imagine you want to show pictures of your family or home to your foreign friends.

GUIDELINES  Scan the picture and identify the topic.

 It is better to start with a general statement.

 For example, ‘they‎ are‎ clearly‎ both‎ connected‎ to‎ the‎ topic‎ of‎ science…‎ but‎ in‎ two‎ quite‎different contexts ’.

 Use present continuous to describe what is happening. Select the relevant details.

 When comparing the pictures, talk about the similarities and differences between them. For example: ‘Both‎pictures‎show…‎but‎this‎one…,‎whereas‎the‎other‎one…’ .

 Use a wide range of vocabulary. Remember this is a picture so you cannot be 100% sure what is happening.

 Use appropriate language to show you are guessing. Speculate about the pictures.

 You are not asked simply to describe what is happening.

 For example: ‘He is likely to / she ’ll probably find it quite tough ’. Give your opinion, using a variety of structures. If the photographs surprise you, illustrate surprise in your writing.

 When‎you‎describe‎a‎picture,‎remember‎a‎good‎way‎to‎start‎is:‎This‎is‎a‎picture‎of‎….

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 7  Then you can say how many people are in the picture, what clothes they are wearing and how they are feeling, for example: do they seem happy, sad, angry? What are the pe ople doing?

And where are they?

 You can use words like Behind, Next to, In front of, to describe where people and things are in the picture.

 Exercise-1  Describe the following picture Exercise-2 Describe this picture in your own words.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 8 __Description of a place  A good description of a 'place' helps to explain what makes it so different from other 'places'

and can give a good guide as to where it is located.

 When you ’re describing a place or a person, think about the specificity of the describing words you choose. You could say, ‘The man was short ’ yet the others might ask themselves ‘how short? ’ If you said ‘the man was minute ’, this suggests not only that the character is ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 9

especially small in size but also registers a sense of surprise or shock (given the strength of the descriptive word).

 Whether you ’re describing a ramshackle old building or a vivacious, sprightly character, use descriptive language.

 Include information on the appearance of the place, the atmosphere, its people, culture and history.

 Decide which details to include and make a paragraph plan. Use lively descriptive language to make your description interesting. Conclude by giving a personal recommendation. Is it an interesting place to visit? Why/why not?

 These adjectives can be used for describing a place: crowded, cosmopolitan, airy, remote , desolate, noisy and so on.

 Select details which are needed to create the impression you want your reader to have. Focus on what is needed for plot, to create a mood, or to capture atmosphere.

Consider these two descriptions of a room.

1."The room was square with a window along one side. It had four chairs and a TV and video. There was a snacks cabinet and computer in the corner. The carpet was red and the ceiling cream." 2."The room was brightly lit by a large window and housed several modern pieces of electrical equipment but the effect was softened by a snacks cabinet and a warm red carpet." The first description is like a list. It gives a lot of information, which is not very interesting.

The second gives an overall impression of the room and also manages to hint at the character behind it. In this case, it suggests someone who likes technology but wants to be comfortable too.

My City I live in Hyderabad. It ’s a buzzing and crowded city. It offers great food and the best food is Hyderabadi Biryani. There are lots of varieties of biryani. I enjoy eating this delica cy with my family every weekend. My favourite place in Hyderabad is the Salarjung museum. I still remember the day when my friends and I , along with our history teacher visited the museum. I was awestruck with the

amazing exhibits at the museum. My friends made fun of me and shook me violently at one instance, when I was simply standing and staring, admiring the exhibits displayed there.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 10 I love the vibrant Charminar because there are many places to go for shopping. Charminar is so colorful, it is also called “choodi bazaar ”, it is also called the “city of pearls ” ; the markets offer interesting design patterns of clothing, accessories, pearls and so on. If you like buying gr eat bags and

books, you must go to Koti. I have had bought books from Koti on half the price. Your bargain skills come to rescue when you shop at General bazaar or Paalika bazaar. Hyderabad is a cit y rich in tradition and culture.

One shall never miss the majestic Golconda fort when they come to Hyderabad. I spent a great time at this historic place on my birthday. And if you like animals you can visit the Nehru Zoological Park and see different fish , birds and wild animals. There are other attractions too like Ramoji Film city, Qutub Shahi Tombs, Shri Jagannath temple, Falaknuma Palace and so on. Come and see for yourself! Exercise

Describe your favorite place/city in your own words.

Describing a person Describing a person or an object, an event or a process can be done verbally or in non- verbal way. It is necessary to give information only in verbal communication when it comes to telephonic interviews/conversations or in writing.

While describing, it is vital to understand the following things:- A. Person- a]Body build: skinny, thin, slender, average weight, muscular, fat, chubby, plump, overweight, obese, beer belly, average build, stocky, medium height, tall, short, wheatish, cat-eyed, sharp-nose, etc.

b] Description of hair baldy, permed, curly hair, spikes, straight hair, shabby hair, wavy- hair, blonde, pony, pigs tail, plaited, fringes, grey hair, broom hair etc c] Description of nose sharp nose, blunt nose, big nose, lips etc., ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 11

d] Facial features moustache, beard, side burns, pimples, dimples, round eyes ,square chin, big nose, spectacled, round face, moles etc.

Let us read the description of Charlie Chaplin.

Exercise Describe any of the following persons.

a) Your Class Teacher b) Your Best Friend c) Yourself He is a short man with baggy pants, a tight coat, big shoes, a small derby hat, squatty walking with his toes out and his knees wide apart. A bamboo cane in hand, that nasty little walk and a signature toothbrush moustache is one and only Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin. He was an English comedy

actor, a notable director and a musician. He is considered to be one of the finest mimes and clowns caught on film. Chaplin was one of the most creative and influential personalities in the silent film era- he acted in, directed, scripted, produced, and eventually scored his own films. His working life in entertainment spanned over 65 years.Some of his famous

movies are- Making a Living, The great dictator and many more.


Some people have a habit of noticing details and they remember them. There are a number of things in our house, in the hall, in the kitchen, in the bedroom, etc. But, if you are asked to describe the things in the kitchen or the hall or your own room, will you be able to describe them?

Read the description of an oven given here:

OVEN: Oven is a device for baking, grilling, heating, etc. It is an electric device. It has a see-through glass door to view the food being cooked. There are stainless steel black heating elements at the top and the bottom of the oven. They are controlled by a thermostat to provide uniform temperature inside the oven. We can see these through the glass door. There is a wire grill inside the oven. The glass door is a drop-down front door, which gives you easy access to the interior of the oven. On the top

right hand side, there is a black knob for temperature control. Below that there is a heater selection knob. There are heater indication lights also. It is a very useful device in the kitchen. We can use it for toasting bread. It can grill the sandwiches for us. It can also be used to fry groundnuts, etc.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 13 Exercise Describe your mobile (or) your laptop.

IF CLAUSES Conditional sentences have two parts: the if-clause and the main clause .

The IF-clause introduces a condition . The main clause is the result of that condition Example sentence: If it rains, I will cancel the trip.

If it rains is the if-clause and I will cancel the trip is the main clause.

Rules of ‘IF’ clause sentences There are some rules which we need to follow in using “if” clause sentences.

If clause Main clause Simple Present -------------------------- Simple Future Simple Past -- ---------------------------- with ‘Would ’ Past Perfect---- --------------------------with ‘Would have ’ Subjective mood ------------------------ with ‘Would ’

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 14 Simple Present ---------Simple Future If the ‘if clause ’ is in simple present tense , the main clause is to be in simple future tense .

Ex:- If he invites me, I will attend the party.

If I go fast, I will catch the bus.

If she calls me, I can go to meet her.

If they play well, they will win the game.

Simple Past------------with Would If the ‘if clause ’ is in Simple Past tense , we can write the main clause with would.

Ex:- If he invited me, I would attend the party.

If she prepared well, she would pass the exams.

If I met them, they would tell me the secret.

Past Perfect tense----------------with Would have If the ‘if clause ’ is in past perfect tense , we can write the main clause with would have.

Ex:- If he had invited me, I would have attended the party.

If I had gone there, I would have got information about the issue.

If they had studied well, they would have settled in a good position.

Subjective mood ------------ with Would If the if clause is written in subjective mood , we can write the main clause with would .

Ex:- If he were I, he would kill the thief.

If she were Ramya, she would complete the work in time.

Note: - For all plural and singular subjects we use only “were ”.


Choose the right answer from the given options to fill in the blanks of the following ‘If’ clause sentences.

1. If he prepares well, he the exam.

a) pass b) will pass c) would pass d) would have passed 2. If Raju early, he would have caught the bus.

a) has started b) started c) had started d) will start 3. If I her pen, she would give me .

a) asks b) will ask c) had asked d) asked 4. If I had tried hard, I the job.

a) got b) would have got c) will got d) get 5. If she I, she would complete the work.

a) was b) are c) were d) is 6. If they me, I will reach to a good position.

a) helped b) have helped c) had helped d) help 7. If she invited me, I the party.

a) attend b) would attend c) will attend d) attended 8. If I well, I would not have been in this position.

a) had studied b) studied c) will study d) has studied 9. If she understands the passage, she the questions.

a) answered b) had answered c) is answering d) will answer 10. If Radha were a bird, she in the sky.

a) will fly b) fly c) would fly d) will be flying ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 16 TECHNICAL AND BUSINESS VOCABULARY Technical vocabulary is words or phrases that are used primarily in a specific line of work or

profession. For example, people who work in the steel industry often use words like "Rockwell", "Olsen", "cup test", and "camber". These words have special meanings pertaining to the manufacture of steel. Similarly, an electrician needs to know technical words such as capacitor, impedance, and surge capacity; words which most people outside of that industry never use.

Working in a business environment you will feel the need to learn a raft of new words not covered by Standard English Vocabulary. Sooner or later you will be exposed to obtain new skills such as speaking on the phone in the most professional manner, creating an outstanding CV, writing letters to your partners or making unique presentations.

In order to handle all of these tasks with dignity and honor you need to get acquainted with so called business vocabulary. By the way, according to research conducted by Global English almost 100% of employees are of the firm opinion that inadequate business language skills result in poor communication and misunderstanding between co-workers or business partners.

In order to climb up the career ladder with more ease and in a short period of time you need to ha ve competency in business vocabulary.

BASIC BUSINESS TERMS 1. Personnel The people who work for a company or organization 2. white-collar workers workers in offices and other non-production phases of industry

3. terminate, fire If some did something wrong and is forced to leave the company 4. laid off losing or leaving jobs because their employer has closed or moved 5. cost-effective

delivers a given level of service at least cost 6. outsourcing the transfer of a business function to an external service or component provider 7. benchmarking system to compare ones performance to performance levels in other companies

8. Branding ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 17 creating brands and keeping them in customer ’s minds through advertising, product and package design, etc.

9. Generic products/generics a product which doesn ’t have a brand name, therefore any company can manufacture it 10. Franchise the right to sell a company ’s products in a particular area using the company ’s name 11. Franchisee

someone who is given or sold a franchise 12. Franchisor the company which offers franchises 13. invoice a document asking for payment and showing how much to pay

14. balance sheet A statement that shows the value of a company ’s assets and its debts 15. auditor Someone whose job is to carry out an official examination of the accounts of a business and to produce a report

PARAGRAPH WRITING A paragraph is a group of sentences that share the same idea. We use paragraphs to structure our writing and to make it easier for the reader to follow. Write down information and ideas relating to that topic. Once you have a clearer idea of what you want to address in your paragraph, you can start organizing your thoughts by writing down your ideas on a notepad or word document. Paragraphs can

contain many different kinds of information. Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence.

Topic Sentence: The first sentence of your paragraph needs to be the topic sentence. A topic sentence is an introductory line that addresses what the main idea or thesis of the paragraph is going to be. It should contain the most important and relevant point you wish to make regarding your topic, thus summarizing the paragraph as a whole.

Supporting Sentence s: Once you have written and are happy with your topic sentence, you can start to fill in the rest of your paragraph. This is where the detailed, well-structured notes you wrote earlier will come in handy. Make sure that your paragraph is coherent, which means that it is easy to read ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 18

and understand, that each sentence connects with the next and that everything flows nicely as a whole.

To achieve this, try to write clear, simple sentences that express exactly what you want to say.

Concluding Sentence: The concluding sentence of your paragraph should tie everything together. A good concluding sentence will reinforce the idea outlined in your topic sentence, but now it has all the weight of the evidence or arguments contained in your supporting sentences behind it. After reading the concluding sentence, the reader should have no doubt as to the accuracy or relevance of the paragraph as a whole.

Note : Paragraphs should never contain more than one central idea. If a given idea has multiple points or facets, then each individual aspect of the idea should be given its own paragraph. A new paragraph is also used each time you are contrasting two points or presenting each side of an argument.

Sample - Pros and cons of Social networking sites Topic sentence :

The benefits of social networking sites have the potential to outweigh the dangers of such websites.

Supporting Sentences :

While social networking does curb Real life interaction with one ’s peers, it also provides shy, introverted, or socially awkward youth with a new avenue of communication that often makes it easier to connect and form relationships.

Concluding Sentence:

Even though there are large number of risks and downfalls associated with social networking, when the tool is used correctly and the youth are instructed on correct usage, it offers considerable positives.

Some useful Phrases:

To show addition : again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too To give examples : for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate To compare: also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

19 To contrast: although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet To summarize or conclude: all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up

To show time: after, afterward, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally, formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, when, while To show place or direction: above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.)

To indicate logical relationship: Accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus …..

Exercise Write a paragraph on “An invention that has changed the world ”.


An oral presentation is a short talk on a set topic. In an oral presentation one or more students give a talk to a group and present views on a topic based on their readings or research. The rest of the group then joins in a discussion of the topic.

Performance Anxiety Most people feel nervous about speaking in front of a group and that ’s not a bad thing —a bit of adrenalin can help a performance. However, an oral presentation is a performance, so you need to act the part of a confident speaker. To make sure that ‘stage fright ’ doesn ’t become a problem, here are some strategies to try:

• Being well-prepared and organized reduces anxiety and makes presenting easier. Make sur e you’ve prepared and rehearsed, that your notes are arranged in correct order and any visuals wo rk without any problems.

• Take a few deep breaths. Breathing slowly and evenly will calm you down especially if you’re prone to ‘the shakes ’ (in your hands or your voice) when you ’re nervous.

• Stand in a balanced position, facing the audience, feet apart. Smile! • If you feel nervous, tell the group you ’re presenting to — they will understand. Remember that the audience consists of your colleagues and friends. They want you to succeed.

Preparing a Presentation  If you are able to choose a topic, select the one that you have some questions about and that interests you the most.

 Examine the topic provided to you carefully and make sure you know exactly what to do.

 Research your topic.

 Have a clear, organized structure for your oral presentation.

 Brainstorm your topic and write a rough outline in point form.

 Organise your material and write a draft —think about the length of time you have to speak and the amount of information you can include.

 Summari ze your draft into points.

 Plan and prepare your visual aids.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 21  Rehearse your presentation and get its length right. Ask a friend to listen and time your presentation.

Structuring your presentation Structuring a talk is no different from writing an essay or a report; it requires an introduction, body and conclusion which have to be linked clearly. A poorly structured talk will confuse and frustrate an audience.

1. Introduction - Start your talk by greeting the audience and introducing yourself. Outline the main points and state your topic and tell the audience what your presentation will cover. A good introduction will capture an audience ’s attention.

2. Body - Move from one point to the next by using phrases (such as ‘Firstly ... secondly ’ ...

‘finally ’). Develop the main points and present examples and evidence. Make sure you provide clear links between main points and explanations. Use visual aids to engage the interest of your audience and ‘show ’ instead of just ‘tell’. Emphasize important information. Tell your audience when information is particularly important or interesting.

Tell them why.

3. Conclusion - Take the opportunity to show that you have covered all the points you made in your introduction. Express your own conclusions about the opinion/argument. Don ’t introduce any new information in the conclusion. You can signal your conclusion with the phrase ‘In conclusion ... ’ Thank the audience, and invite questions.

Starting well • Stand in a balanced position, facing the audience, feet apart - this helps you to appear confident.

Don’t slouch, shuffle about or lean against the furniture.

• Take a deep breath and wait for the group to focus their attention on you before you start to speak.

• Greet the audience and introduce yourself, even if they already know you.

• Smile! Your audience will react warmly and if you can ’t feel relaxed you can at least appear that way.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 22 Delivery • Don’t read your presentation word-for-word from a script or from PowerPoint slides - listening to someone read aloud is boring for an audience. Aim to talk instead.

• Written and spoken language is different. Use appropriate language; generally a formal but conversational tone is best (avoid slang or colloquial language).

• Speak clearly and at a moderate pace. Don ’t rush; nervous speakers tend to speed up, so try to pace yourself.

• Slow down to emphasize key points.

• Don’t be afraid to pause. Short pauses can add emphasis to important points and give you a chance to collect your thoughts.

• Make eye contact with your audience. Don ’t just look at your tutor or stare off into space. A good technique is to divide the room into three sections (left, middle and right) and sweep your eyes across the audience. If you don ’t want to look anyone in the eye, look at a point in the middle of their foreheads occasionally.

• Rehearse with your visual aids to make sure they work.

• Time yourself to make sure you stay within the allotted time limit.

• Keep your body turned toward the audience and your body language open and friendly.

Answering questions After your presentation, members of your class may ask you questions. Don ’t be afraid of questions; they are a positive sign. They show that the audience is listening and interested.

• Listen carefully to the question. Repeat or paraphrase the question so you are sure you understand it and so everyone in the audience hears it.

• If it is a long question, try breaking it up into sections, and answer them one by one.

• Be brief and to the point and avoid introducing new information.

• If you don ’t know the answer to the question, it ’s OK to say so - you can ’t know absolutely everything about your topic. Get the group involved by opening the question up to the audience and letting someone else answer it! If no one else can, you can always offer to find out the answer for them at a later date.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 23 TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES A sentence is a grammatical unit made up of one or more words (Go! is a sentence, as is The cat sat on the mat .). Sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop, a question mark or an

exclamation point. Sentences can be simple, compound, and complex, depending on the thoughts they convey and how they're structured.

SIMPLE SENTENCE A subject + a verb + and a completed thought = simple sentence (independent clause) It is referred to as "independent" because, while it might be part of a compound or complex sentence, it can also stand by itself as a complete sentence.

1. The girl sprinted after the tiger.

2. The cat purred.

3. Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station early but waited until noon for the bus.

COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses (or complete sentences) connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So).

1. Joe waited for the train but the train was late.

2. I like bananas and I like grapes.

3. The shoplifter had stolen clothes, so he ran once he saw the police.

You should avoid beginning a sentence with "and," "or," "but," or the other coordinating conjunctions.

COMPLEX SENTENCES A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses connected to it . A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause, or complete sentence, but it lacks one of the elements that would make it a complete sentence.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 24 Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions . Below are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions:

The dependent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause, as in the following:

Note: when the dependent clause comes first, a comma should be used to separate the two clauses.

1. Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station.

2. While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late.

3. After eating lunch at The Cheesecake Factory, Tim went to the gym to exercise.

Conversely, the independent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the dependent clause, as in the following:

1. I did not see them at the station because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon.

2. Joe realized that the train was late while he waited at the train station.

3. Opinionated women are given disadvantages in societies that privilege male accomplishments.

Transformation of Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences Conversion of one type of sentence into another requires changing a phrase into a clause or vice versa.

Simple to Compound: a phrase into main clause Simple to Complex: a phrase into a subordinate clause Compound to Simple: a main clause into a phrase Compound to Complex : a main clause into a subordinate clause after although as because Before while since Even though if though unless that

when wherever whereas whenever until Note: When the independent clause comes first, a comma should not be used to separate the two clauses.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 25 Complex to Simple : a subordinate clause into a phrase Complex to Compound : a subordinate clause into a main clause In many cases, a sentence can be written in three different ways, making it simple,

complex or compound as the case may be.

Some examples:

I. Simple: Being rich he can travel by air.

Complex: As he is rich he can travel by air.

Compound: He is rich so he can travel by air.

II. Simple: In case of not working hard, you will fail.

Complex: Unless you work hard, you will fail.

Compound: Work hard otherwise you will fail.

III. Simple: In spite of his old age, he can run fast.

Complex: Although he is old, he can run fast.

Compound: He is old but he can run fast.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 26 Table for Three Types of Sentences Simple We read to learn.

Inspite of/Despite Despite being poor he is honest.

Verb+ing Being punished he wept.

enough/too ….to He is too weak to walk.

Without Without reading you will fail.

at the time He woke up at the time of raining Adjective It was a red ball. Complex

so that We read so that we can learn.

Though/Although Though he is poor he is honest.

Since/As As he was punished, he wept.

so…..that(negative) He is so weak that he cannot walk.

If/In case If you do not read you will fail when He woke up when it was raining.

that/which It was a ball that/which was red. Compound and /or We read and we learn.

but He is poor but he is honest.

and so He was punished and /so he wept.

very…..and He is very weak and he cannot walk.

or Read or fail/you will fail.

and It was raining and he woke up.

and It was a ball and it was red.

Exercise 1 :

Find out the type of the sentence.

1. Walk quickly; else you will not overtake him.

2. The town in which I live is very large.

3. I called him, but he gave me no answer.

4. I went because I was invited.

5. 1 returned home because I was tired.

6. They always talk who never think.

7. The star was bright.

8. You can leave or stay.

9. Rani went to the market and bought some flowers 10. The baby cried for food.

Exercise: I ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 27 Change the following sentences as directed.

1. Krishna went to market. Krishna bought vegetables. (change into compound sentence) 2. He is my uncle. He is 50 years old. (change into complex sentence) 3. Raju sang a song and crossed the river. (change into simple sentence) 4. He played cricket to become a famous cricketer. (change into compound sentence) 5. It was raining, but he did not stop doing the work. (change into complex sentence)

6. Kiran felt sick and took the medicine. (change into simple sentence) IDIOMS English idioms are an important part of everyday English. They come up all the time in both written and spoken English. Because idioms don't always make sense literally, you'll need to familiariz e yourself with the meaning and usage of each idiom. That may seem like a lot of work, but learning

idioms is fun, especially when you compare English idioms to the idioms in your own language.

Learning to use common idioms and expressions will make your English sound more native, so it's a good idea to master some of these expressions.

1. A blessing in disguise: a good thing that seemed bad at first.

Losing that job turned out to be a blessing in disguise for him as it forced him to plunge into business.

2. Beat around the bush : Avoid saying what you mean, usually because it is uncomfortable Will you please stop beating around the bush and get to the point?

3. Call it a day : Stop working on something I think we have done enough work today, I am feeling tired now, let ’s call it a day 4. Get out of hand: Get out of control The football fans have got completely out of hand 5. Not rocket a science : It's not complicated

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 28 Freddie, let me show you how to change the oil in your car. Don't worry, 'it's not rocket science.' 6. Miss the boat: It's too late

The discounted price sale ended today and I just missed the boat on making a great deal.

7. Pull someone's leg: To joke with someone Don’t worry about what he said. He ’s just pulling your leg.

8. That's the last straw: My patience has run out The last straw in their relationship was when he physically abused her. She walked out after that.

9. Add insult to injury: To make a bad situation worse The company rejected his application for a job, and to add insult to injury , refused to pay his expenses.

10. Give someone the cold shoulder : Ignore someone She gave me the cold shoulder .

Exercise 1 Choose the right option for the underlined idioms 1. My parents were on pins and needles while I was writing my EAMCET exam. .

A. excited. B. curious. C. anxious D. disturbed 2. Ignoring his father ’s warnings, he burnt his fingers by starting a new business.

A. felt ashamed B. Got into trouble C. Suffered loss. D. burnt his hand in fire.

3. I found my son burning the midnight oil to secure good rank.

A. wasting oil B. Too much interested C. reluctant D. working hard 4. He had to eat a humble pie in starting a row with his neighbor over a trifle.

A. To feel sorry and apologies for a wrong B. to take simple food C. To remain without food D. To be punished for doing something wrong.

5. By disobeying the orders of his boss, John will have to face the music.

A. go to a party B. To invite a trouble C. face the problem D. listen to music ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 29 Exercise 2 Collect any five idioms and write their meanings in the given space.






ABSTRACT WRITING An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of 200 words or less. To write an abstract, finish your paper first, then type a summary that identifies the purpose, problem, methods, results, and conclusion of your work. After you get the details down, all that's left is to format it correctly . Since an abstract is only a summary of the work you've already done, it's easy to accomplish!


1) Identify your purpose. So what? Why does this matter? The reader wants to know why your research is important, and what the purpose of it is. Start off your abstract by considering the following questions:

 Why did you decide to do this study or project?

 How did you conduct your research?

 What did you find?

 Why is this research and your findings important?

 Why should someone read your entire essay?

2) Explain the problem at hand. Abstracts state the “problem ” behind your work. Think of this as the specific issue that your research or project addresses. You can sometimes combine the problem with your motivation, but it is best to be clear and separate the two.

 What problem is your research trying to better understand or solve?

 What is the scope of your study - a general problem, or something specific?

 What is your main claim or argument?

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 30 3) Explain your methods. Motivation - check. Problem - check. Methods? Now is the part where you give an overview of how you accomplished your study. If you did your own work, include a description of it here. If you reviewed the work of others, it can be briefly explained. Discuss your

own research including the variables and your approach.

 Describe the evidence you have to support your claim  Give an overview of your most important sources.

4) Give your conclusion. This should finish up your summary and give closure to your abstract. In it, address the meaning of your findings as well as the importance of your overall paper. This format of having a conclusion can be used in both descriptive and informative abstracts, but you will only address the following questions in an informative abstract.

 What are the implications of your work?

 Are your results general or very specific?

The importance of a good abstract The abstract allows you to elaborate upon each major aspect of the paper and helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper.

SAMPLE ABSTRACT Indian Sports Sports are an integral part of any society and so in India. But the disappointing performance of the Indian athletes and players in the Olympic has made the people to think about the condition of sports in India. Despite our huge size in terms of population, we have not been able to leave our impact on

international sports. In this paper I focus on the reasons that lead to such a disappointment of Indian sports in international arena. Starting from wrong policy makers to the worse infrastructure all contribute to demean the motivation of the athletes. Cricket being the other reason as sponsorship, fan support and media all focus on it hence resulting in ignoring other sports. In fact it has been again and again pointed out that politics in the Sports Organizations of India has spoiled the sports. Under such

circumstances, it is not possible to raise the standard of sports in India. This paper will through light on the reasons of the downfall of Indian sports as well as offer solutions for the same.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 31 UNIT III INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES/ MOCK INTERVIEWS To meet the challenges of professional life, one has to be familiar with many skills to grab the

attention of an interviewer, out of which Interview skills are the basic necessities to meet up the future challenges with success.


There are many types of interview like Information gathering interview, appraisal interview, exit interview, hiring interview, college/ university interview, persuasive interview, counseling interview and many more.

Hiring/Entrance Interview is one of the best known and the most widely experienced type of interview, where an interviewer is taken by Human Resource Manager/ Educational Expertise. To reduce your chances being rejected, here are some basic professional skills, which will lead you towards the path of success in your interview.


 One should have to be prepared in advance for an interview. It ’s the only way through which one can gain the trust of an interviewer.

 An interviewer always attempt to find answers for the following.

Why they should select you?

What are the qualities, which you have and other do not have?

How can you benefit their organization?

 If you can show your trust, your confidence, your commitment, and appropriate skills, then you could win a successful future.

 Interview is a form of oral communication. It ’s one to one, or one to group interaction, where an applicant proves themselves as a unique person to be the part of an organization.

 Remember that interview is always pre-planned and structured. It ’s a formal presentation between an interviewer and an interviewee.

 Only those pass it with flying colors, who are original and show their interest with confidence and who present themselves appealing.


 Decide what to wear.

 Remember to Dress simply but elegantly. Dress should be well ironed without crease. Wear comfortable shoes. Remember to wear basic hosiery.

 You can even check what management wears and dress similarly without over kill.

 Do not Dress casual or wear Athletic Shoes.

 Prepare your file having your portfolio, educational degree copies and extra copies of your resume.

 Find proper address in advance, that where are you going in the morning.

 Last but not the least, get a good night sleep.

AFTER INTERVIEW With a pleasing smile, say thanks and ask about the next step in the process. Follow up. Call them if you do not get a call within a given time frame and don't forget to write a thank you letter to an organization for taking out their precious time for your interview.

TRADITIONAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Few of the traditional interview questions, which an organization might ask are 1. Tell me about yourself (in two minutes).

2. Why do you feel that you will be successful in...?

3. Why did you decide to interview with our organization?

4. Are you willing to relocate?

5. Tell me about your scholastic record.

6. Tell me about your extra-curricular activities and interests.

7. What are your strengths and weaknesses?

8. Why should we hire you?

9. Where do you see yourself in 5 years? 10 years?


1) You can never predict every question that you will encounter, so approach the interview with an inventory of important points. Make a list of the points about yourself that you want the interviewer to know.

2) Consider each question an opportunity to provide some of this information. Don't assume anything.

You will be evaluated on your answers, not your resume.

3) Pause a couple of seconds before you respond to each question, even if you know exactly what you want to say. Take this time to quickly plan your answer, this helps to avoid misunderstandings and produces much more concise answers.

4 ) If you don't understand a question, ask for clarification. This is expected and is preferable to providing an unsuitable answer. If you need time to collect your thoughts - take it. It is better to think for a few moments and make sure that your answer is doing you justice.

5) Always expand. Never answer a question with a "yes" or "no." 6) The interview is an opportunity for you to sell yourself. Don't be afraid to 'blow your own horn.' As long as you can back up what you are saying with examples which demonstrate that what you are saying is true, you are not bragging.

7) Be very positive. Don't complain about anything Also, avoid negative words.

8) Don't be afraid to repeat important points. In fact, it is a good idea to do this.

FINITE AND NON-FINITE VERBS & TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS Finite Verbs A finite verb is a verb which has a subject and shows tense. In short, it is a verb being a verb (i.e., a doing word) as opposed to a verbal (which is another part of speech formed from a verb).

Examples of Finite Verbs Every sentence needs a finite verb. Look at these examples (with the finite verbs shaded):

 He painted the fence.

(In this example, painted is a finite verb.) ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 34  He varnished the painted fence.

(In this example, painted is a verbal. It's actually a participle from the verb to paint , which is being used as an adjective. A verbal is another name for a non-finite verb.) Here are some more examples:

 You promised me the last ticket.

 I am excited about going to the amusement park.

 I went for a walk around the park.

 Everyone wanted to go to the amusement park, but we only had four tickets.

 On that dark day, the spirits rose from their graves to feast upon the living.

 In that moment, it all became clear that the amusement park was a trap.

Look at this example:

 He likes painting and wants to paint the painted fence.

In this example, the following look a bit like verbs:

Likes Painting Wants To Paint Painted

Let's run a check over them:

Painting is a noun formed from the verb to paint . (These are called gerunds. The big giveaway is the -ing ending.) To paint is the infinitive form of the verb to paint . (The big giveaway is the word to in front.) Painted is the past participle (being used as an adjective). (A giveaway is the -ed ending.) That just leaves likes and wants . They are both finite verbs in this example.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 35 Non-Finite Verbs A non-finite verb (also known as a verbal) is the term used to describe a verb that is not showing tense.

In other words, it a verb form which is not acting like a verb (or, at least, the type of verb you need to form a sentence).

There are three types of non-finite verbs: gerunds, infinitives, and participles. Look at these examples (non-finite verbs shaded):

 I hate camping.

(Camping is a non-finite verb. In fact, it is a gerund, i.e., a noun formed from a verb. The giveaway for a gerund is the -ing ending.)  I want to go there.

(To go is a non-finite verb. It is an infinitive, i.e., the base form of a verb. The giveaway for an infinitive is often, but not always, the to before it.)  We ate our roasted marshmallows.

(Roasted is a non-finite verb. It is a participle, a type of adjective. There is no real giveaway for a participle, but lots of participles end in -ed and -ing.) Some more examples (non-finite verbs shaded):

 I started screaming at my parents for trying to send me to camp.

(Screaming and trying - gerunds) (To send - infinitive verb)  Arriving late, I saw the other kids and they seemed to be excited.

(Arriving - present participle) (to be - infinitive verb) (excited - past participle.) ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 36

 We sang songs around the campfire and toasted marshmallows.

(There are no non-finite verbs in this example.) Finite and Non-Finite Verbs Can Look Identical Finite and non-finite forms of verbs can be identical. Look at these examples (non-finite verbs shaded):

 They roasted chestnuts.( Roasted is finite)  They love roasted chestnuts.

 They laugh.

 They did laugh.


A transitive verb has two characteristics. First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like kick, want, paint, write, eat, clean, etc. Second, it must have a direct object, something or someone who receives the action of the verb.

Here are some examples of transitive verbs:

Sylvia kicked Juan under the table.

Kicked = transitive verb; Juan = direct object.

Joshua wants a smile from Leodine, his beautiful but serious lab partner.

Wants = transitive verb; smile = direct object.

Cornelius painted the canvas in Jackson Pollock fashion, dribbling bright colors from a heavily soaked brush.

Painted = transitive verb; canvas = direct object.

Alicia wrote a love poem on a restaurant napkin.

Wrote = transitive verb; poem = direct object.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 37 Antonio eats lima beans drenched in brown gravy.

Eats = transitive verb; lima beans = direct object.

Pinky the poodle cleans the dirty supper dishes with his tongue before Grandma loads the "prewashed" items into dishwasher.

Cleans, loads = transitive verbs; dishes, items = direct objects.


An intransitive verb has two characteristics. First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit, die, etc. Second, unlike a transitive verb, it will not have a direct object receiving the action.

Here are some examples of intransitive verbs:

Huffing and puffing, we arrived at the classroom door with only seven seconds to spare.

Arrived = intransitive verb.

James went to the campus cafe for a steaming bowl of squid eyeball stew.

Went = intransitive verb.

To escape the midday sun, the cats lie in the shade under our cars.

Lie = intransitive verb.

Around fresh ground pepper, Sheryl sneezes with violence.

Sneezes = intransitive verb.

In the evenings, Glenda sits on the front porch to admire her immaculate lawn.

Sits = intransitive verb.

Flipped on its back, the beetle that Clara soaked with insecticide dies under the refrigerator.

Dies = intransitive verb.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 38 Realize that many verbs can be both transitive and intransitive.

An action verb with a direct object is transitive while an action verb with no direct object is intransitive. Some verbs, such as arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit, and die, are always intransitive; it is impossible for a direct object to follow.

Other action verbs, however, can be transitive or intransitive, depending on what follows in the sentence. Compare these examples:

Because of blood sugar problems, Rosa always eats before leaving for school.

Eats = intransitive verb.

If there is no leftover pizza, Rosa usually eats whole-grain cereal.

Eats = transitive verb; cereal = direct object.

During cross-country practice, Damien runs over hills, through fields, across the river, and along the highway.

Runs = intransitive verb.

In the spring, Damien will run his first marathon.

Will run = transitive verb; marathon = direct object ERGATIVE VERBS An ergative verb Refers to things that happen, not things that are done. The verb affects the subject.

An ergative verb is a verb that can be either transitive or intransitive, and whose subject when intransitive corresponds to its direct object when transitive.

She broke the stick. (Active) The stick was broken by her. (Passive) The stick broke. (Ergative) ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 39

STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS 1. HR: Human Resources 2. ATM: Automated Teller Machine 3. UFO: Unidentified Flying Object 4. HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

5. IQ: Intelligence Quotient 6. PIN: Personal Identification Number 7. FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation 8. CCTV-Closed-Circuit Television 9. LPG- Liquefied Petroleum Gas

10. AC - Alternating Current 11. HDFC- Housing Development Finance Corporation 12. AM - ante meridiem 13. PM - Post Meridiem 14. AC - Alternate Current

15. BCCI-Board of Control for Cricket in India 16. BBC -British Broadcasting Corporation 17. BHEL-Bharat Heavy Electronics Limited 18. BSF-Border Security Force 19. CBI-Central Bureau of Investigation

20. CRPF-Central Reserve Police Force EXERCISE:

1. Fill in the blanks with the full forms of the abbreviations which are in bold.

a. Ramya plans to do her Ph.D from UK.

b. I love movies of Mammooty! He plays an officer of CBI in many hit movies.

c. My father was a young man when he joined CRPF . He was posted on the borders of Jammu.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 40 d. My friend, Sharath learnt English by listening to BBC regularly.

e. Many soldiers laid down their lives during the LOC war at Kargil.

f. These days, CCTV has become a norm to bring down crime rate of Hyderabad.

g. All of us have accounts in HDFC.

h. You are not supposed to mishandle the CPU in the English lab.

i. Our first lesson in Physics deals with AC.

j. The LPG cylinders have become very expensive these days.

JOB APPLICATION-COVER LETTER REQUISITES OF COVER LETTER Cover letters can improve your chances for an interview. They show how eager you are to work for the specific employer you ’re applying to. And you can let a bit of your personality come through in ways your resume doesn ’t allow for.

It’s a fact, however, that not all employers (or recruiters) take the time to read cover letters.

But it’s always good practice to write a cover letter. To simplify things for yourself, create a single, standardized cover letter, one that you can easily modify – by addressing it to a specific person at the company you ’re applying to, or by highlighting some of your work accomplishments that tie back to their job ad – each time you apply to a new company.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 41 FREQUENTLY ASK ED QUESTIONS 1. What ’s the real purpose of a cover letter?

A. It's important to remember that the cover letter, like the resume, is a marketing tool. Use it to show how your experience and skills can directly help the employer. Doing so demonstrates to them that you have taken the time to customize your application to meet their needs.

2. What exactly should I put in my cover letter and what should I leave out?

A. Highlight your relevant work history, educational background, and earned credentials. Make sure they come close to matching what the employer ’s job posting asks for. However just like with your resume, certain information should not be revealed to employers. Otherwise you might be exposing yourself to potential discrimination.

3. How should I format my cover letter?

A. Typically a cover letter is set up like any other business letter. It starts with the contact information of the person you ’re addressing the letter to. Then it states the subject of the letter, which might include the name or reference number of the job you ’re applying for. Following this is the body of the letter: why you believe you ’re qualified for this job, a bit about your relevant work history, how it is you’re interested in working for this particular employer, ending with how you plan to follow up.

4. What are the worst cover letter mistakes?

A. Writing endlessly about how wonderful you are – without backing it up, forgetting to mention why you truly want to work for this specific employer. Avoid addressing the cover letter “To Whom It May Concern ” or “Dear Employer, ” which reveals that this is a broadcast letter, not a targeted marketing tool.

5. Are there cover letter samples for different situations I can access for free?

A. Cover letter samples for different positions (such as Office Coordinator or Purchasing Assistant) and for several types of career circumstances are available in the websites but choose the right vocabulary that suits you the best.

6. Who can I get to review my cover letter for errors and effectiveness?

A. Proof reading is a skill that not everyone possesses. That ’s why people decide to reach out for a second opinion. You can get others to review your cover letter for free (trusted friends, recruiters and local career centers), though it may pay dividends to hire a professional cover letter/resume writer for an experienced opinion.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 42 7. How do I handle sticky situations in my cover letter?

A. If you ’ve recently been downsized, or have been out of the workforce on an extended leave, it ’s a good idea to mention this in your cover letter. The goal is to inform the employer of your circumstances while minimizing any concerns they might have. Read more about how to handle sticky situations in your cover letter.

8. What is the best way to include a cover letter along with my resume?

A. When you apply to a job posting online, you can include your cover letter as text, right in the body of your e-mail. Caution is advised though: you don ’t want to send an email with fancy fonts and designs if the recipient is using a plain-text email client. Read more about the proper ways of Emailing Cover Letters and Attachments.

9. Do I need to state my “objective ” in my cover letter?

A. Not necessarily. Have you read about how to replace the Resume Objective with a Personal Brand Statement? In a similar vein here ’s How to Include Your Personal Brand Statement in Your Cover Letter. Furthermore you can simply state that you are applying for the position as it ’s listed in the job ad.

10. Are there ways to increase the impact of my cover letter?

A. One way to distinguish yourself in a cover letter is to Customize Your Cover Letter to the Job Ad.

Show employers that you are genuinely qualified for the exact job they ’re offering. Also capture their attention right from the start with New Beginnings for Your Cover Letter.


District – Singrauli Himachal Pradesh 23rd January 2019 The Manager (Designation) XYZ (Company Name)

Dear Sir/Madam, Sub: Application for the post o f assistant electrical engineer I am currently pursuing my B-Tech Electrical & Electronics. As I am in search of right job, I identified your company and find it the right place as I will have the scope of being a part of the technical team, where I can execute my electrical knowledge, which is my area of interest.

I have been an active member of the academic project Capillary Evaporate Cooler & have got a practical knowledge during this project tenure. I have also attended an Industrial Training program at National Thermal Power Cooperation, where we experienced and learnt about steam cycle.

I believe that my communication skills, technical skills and positive work ethics would make me an asset to your organization.

I would like to be a part of this reputed firm, where I can utilize my skills, knowledge & talent. This would be the right opportunity and I strongly believe that if given a chance I will prove myself an d contribute to the growth and success of the organization. Please find my detailed CV for your consideration. Should you need any more details, please do let me know. Thanking you for your time and looking forward to hear from you.

Thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely, (Amit Singh) Enclosure Resume and related testimonials ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

44 UNIT- IV TELEPHONIC EXPESSIONS Telephonic expressions are nothing but the way of answering, receiving and responding to the telephonic calls. In the other words Telephonic expressions are also said as Telephonic manners. No

exaggeration that all start the day with the phone and end the day with the phone. So, when the phone is important and the Telephonic expressions are also very important. Here are some important telephonic expressions which are to be practiced by everyone, for telephone (mobile) has become the part and parcel of everybody ’s life.

Making Phone Calls Introducing yourself o Good morning/afternoon/evening. This is Mike at (company name)/Mike from (department name). Could I speak to (person you ’re calling for)?

o Good morning/afternoon/evening. This is Mike at (company name)/Mike from (department name). I ’m calling about/because… When the person you want to speak to is unavailable o Can I leave a message for him/her?

o Could you tell him/her that I called, please?

o Could you ask him/her to call me back, pleas e?

o Okay, thanks. I ’ll call back later.

Dealing with bad connections o I think we have a bad connection. Can I call you back?

o I’m sorry, we have a bad connection. Could you speak a little louder, please?

o I’m sorry, could you repeat that please?

Ending the call o Thank you very much. Have a good day.

o Thanks for your help. Have a good day.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 45 Receiving Phone Calls Answering the phone o Company ABC, this is Mike. How may I help you?

o Good morning/afternoon, Company ABC. How may I help you?

o Purchasing department, Frank speaking.

Note: If we are taking an external call and talking to a customer, “How may I help you? ” is common. If we are taking an internal call, we normally do not say “How may I help you? ” For internal calls, saying your name and your department is usually sufficient.

Getting the name of the caller if he/she doesn ’t give it to you o May I have your name please?

o Who am I speaking with?

o May I ask who ’s calling?

Responding to a caller ’s request o Sure, let me check on that.

o Let me see if she’s available.

o Sure, one moment please.

Asking someone to wait on the line o Can I put you on hold for a minute?

o Do you mind holding while I check on that (or “handle that for you, ” “check to see if he ’s available, ” etc) Taking a message o He’s/she ’s not available at the moment. Would you like to leave a message?

o He’s/she ’s out of the office right now. Can I take a message?

Dealing with bad connections/wrong numbers o I’m sorry, we have a bad connection. Could you give me your number and I ’ll call you right back?

o I think we have a bad connection. Could you speak a little louder, please?

o I’m sorry, could you repeat that?

o I’m sorry, you have the wrong number.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 46 Ending the call o Is there anything else I can help you with?….Okay, thanks for calling. Have a great day.

o Is there anything else I can do for you?…Okay, have a good day.

AUXILIARY VERBS An auxiliary verb (abbreviated aux) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb. The main verb provides the main semantic content of the clause.

Auxiliary verbs are also called helping verbs, helper verbs, or (verbal) auxiliaries.

Auxiliary verbs are so called because they help to form the various tenses, moods, and voices of oth er verbs. The principal ones are be, do , and have.

1. Be is used with other verbs (Be forms-is, am, are ,was, were) - to form continuous tenses and the passive voice:

She is reading a magazine.

We were talking to them for ages.

England was beaten by Germany in the final.

2. Have is used to make perfect tenses: (have forms-has, have, had) The secretaries haven ’t written all the letters yet.

The thief had left before I entered the room.

We will have established community gardens by next year.

3. Do is used: (do forms-do, does, did) To emphasize: He did look tired.

To make questions: Do you want a cup of coffee?

Does Sam write all his own reports?

To form negative statements or questions:

I don ’t like meat.

Didn ’t he know how to play football?


1. Do you like German food?

2. Does your mother speak English?

3. He did not come to school yesterday.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 47 4. Why are you talking?

5. I was taking lunch when you called! 6. A new road is built behind the school.

7. Is he your friend?

Exercise-1 I. Fill in the blanks with correct auxiliary verb.

1. you coming to the party?

2. They finished the job.

3. What you do every Sunday?

4. She not want to stay at home.

5. He called me twice this morning.

6. What she do in her free time?

7. Where they go yesterday?

8. She always wanted to meet him.

9. What they doing when you came in?

10. She come yet; we're still waiting for her.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON Degrees of Comparison are used when we compare one person or one thing with another.

There are three Degrees of Comparison in English .

They are:

1. Positive degree.

2. Comparative degree.

3. Superlative degree.

1. Positive degree .

When we speak about only one person or thing, we use the Positive degree.


•‎This‎house‎is‎big.‎ ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 48 In this sentence only one noun “The house" is talked about.

•‎He‎is‎a‎tall‎student.‎ •‎This‎flow er is beautiful.

2. Comparative When we compare two persons or two things with each other, we use both the Positive degree and Comparative degree.


a. This house is bigger than that one. (Comparative degree) This house is not as big as that one. (Positive degree) The term “bigger" is comparative version of the term “big". Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

b. This flower is more beautiful than that. (Comparative) This flower is not as beautiful as that. (Positive) The term “more beautiful" is comparative version of the term “beautiful". Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

c. He is more intelligent than this boy. (Comparative) This boy is not as intelligent as him. (Positive) The term “more intelligent" is comparative version of the term “intelligent". Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

When we compare more than two persons or things with one another, we use all the three Positive, Comparative and Superlative degrees.


a. This is the biggest house in this street. (Superlative) This house is bigger than any other house in this street. (Comparative) No other house in this street is as big as this one. (Positive) ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 49

Superlative He is more intelligent than other boys in the class. (Comparative) No other boy is as intelligent as this boy. (Positive) The term “most intelligent" is superlative version of the term “intelligent". Both these sentences convey the same meaning.

d. He is the tallest student in this class. (Superlative) He is taller than any other student in this class. (Comparative) No other student is as tall as this student. (Positive) The term “tallest" is superlative version of the term “tall".

Model -1: “The best":


i. This is the best hotel in this area.

No other hotel is as good as this in this area.

This hotel is better than any other hotel one in this area.

ii. Unemployment is the most serious problem facing our country.

Unemployment is more serious than any other problem facing our country.

No other problem facing our country is as serious as unemployment.

Model-2: “One of the best":


i. Calcutta is one of the largest cities in India.

Calcutta is larger than most/many other cities in India.

Very few cities in India are as large as Calcutta.

ii. Satin Tendulkar is one of the best batsmen in the world.

Satin Tendulkar is better than most other batsmen in the world.

No other batman in the world is as good as Satin Tendulkar.

Model-3: “Not the best":


i. This is not the best solution to the problem.

ii. This is not better than few other solutions to this problem.

iii. Other solutions to this problem are not as good as this one.

ii. New York is not the largest city in America.

New York is not bigger than many other cities in America.

Few other cities in America are at least as large as New York.

Few adjectives and adverbs get their Comparative forms by simply getting “more" before them.

And their superlative terms, by getting “most" before them.


Beautiful..........more beautiful..........most beautiful Effective……..more‎effective………most‎effective‎ Effectively……more‎effectively……most‎effectively‎ Enjoyable…….more‎enjoyable……..most‎enjoyable‎ Useful..……….more‎useful…………most‎useful‎

Different……...more‎different………most‎different‎ Honest………...more‎honest…….…..most‎honest‎ Qualified…...…more‎qualified………most‎qualified‎ Few adjectives and adverbs get their Comparative forms by simply getting “er" after them and thei r superlative terms, by getting “est" after them.


Hard………..harder…………..hardest‎ Big………….bigger………….biggest‎ Tall…..……..taller……………tallest‎ Long..………longer..…………longest‎ Short…...…..shorter………….shortest‎

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 51 Costly………costlier…………costliest‎ Simple.. …….simpler………….simplest‎ Degrees of Comparison add beauty and varieties to the sentences.

ANALOGY Analogy is a comparison between one thing and another, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification. The relationships that are found in analogy questions fall into several general types.

1. Object/its characteristics Rubber : flexible :: iron : rigid 2. Letter relationship Pat : tap :: rat : tar 3. Similarity/contrast

Happy : joy :: fat: plump 4. Completion Los : Angeles :: San : Francisco 5. Symbol or representation Dove : peace :: lilies : beauty

EXERCISE-1 Fill in the blanks with the correct word.

1. virus : illness : : flood :

a. rain b. destruction c. hurricane d. drought 2. olive branch : peace :: lamb :

a. meekness b. evil c. love d. royalty 3. smart: intelligent :: ecstatic :

a. despaired b. blissful c. unhappy d. miserable ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 52 4. sweet : sour :: : biased a. impartial b. concerned c. unfair d. predisposed

5. lion : ferocious :: : cunning c. rabbit d. elephant JOB APPLICATION-RESUME The resume is a summary of background facts in list form. It should be designed for quick reading, the resume lists facts about the candidate.

There are several basic types of resumes you can use to apply for job openings. You can choose to write a chronological, functional, combination, or a targeted resume. Each resume type is used for different purposes. Therefore, when deciding which type of resume to use, you have to think about your current circumstances.

Chronological Resume A chronological resume starts by listing your work history, with the most recent position listed first.

Below your most recent job, you list your other jobs in reverse chronological order. Employers typically prefer this type of resume because it's easy to see what jobs you have held and whe n you have worked at them. This is the most common resume type. This type of resume works well for job seekers with a strong, solid work history. If you are starting your career, or if you are changin g career fields, you might consider a different resume type.

Functional Resume A functional resume focuses on your skills and experience, rather than on your chronological work history. Instead of having a “work history ” section at the top of your resume, you might have a “professional experience ” or “accomplishments ” section that lists various skills you have developed over the years. Functional resumes are used most often by people who are changing careers or who

have gaps in their employment history. It is also useful for people who are new to the workforce, have limited work experience, or who have a gap in their employment.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 53 Combination Resume A combination resume is a mix between a chronological resume and a functional resume. At the top of the resume is a list of one ’s skills and qualifications. Below this is one ’s chronological work

history. However, the work history is not the focus of the resume and typically does not take up much space on the resum e. With this type of resume, you can highlight the skills you have that are relevant to the job you are applying for, as well as provide your chronological work history.

Targeted Resume A targeted resume is a resume that is customized to specifically highlight the experience and skills you have that are relevant to the job you are applying for. It takes more work to write a targeted resume than to click to apply with your existing resume. However, it's well worth the effort, especially when applying for jobs that are a perfect match for your qualifications and experience.

The Order of Information Before delving into what information you should add, it ’s important to remember that the information you include will largely depend on the format you choose. With that being said, below is a general guide to what information you should add and the order in which you should add it.

I. Contact Information The contact information section is pretty self-explanatory. This section does not require a label (Contact Information or Contact Details). When listing your contact details you should follow this order:

Name (largest font on page, middle initial is optional) Mailing Address Telephone Number (Check that you have an appropriate voicemail message) Email Address (makes sure it ’s appropriate, use your account.) Link to online portfolio (optional, ensure it is relevant to the position)

II. Choose a Resume Introduction Like formats, job seekers have 3 choices for their resume introduction: qualifications summary, career objective, and professional profile. The goal of all three are to gain the attention of an employer by highlighting your skills and experience that will help their company. However, the method through which each introduction achieves this goal differs.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 54 Qualifications Summary With regards to format, the qualifications summary is a bullet point list (ranging from 4 to 6 points) of your most outstanding career achievements. Avoid using generic statements and try to list your skills

in a way reflects your unique voice.

Dos I am applying to a job that requires a rigid set of abilities.

I have a wealth of experience in the industry.

I possess multiple skill sets.

Don’ts I lack experience.

I am an entry level candidate that lacks specific skill sets.

I lack measurable achievements Career Objective A resume objective, also referred to as a career objective, is a 2-3 sentence statement that provides an overview of your skills and experience. This resume introduction is best for entry-level candidates.

Dos  I am an entry-level applicant.

 I do not have in-depth experience in the industry.

 I am a recent college graduate.

Don’ts  I have a wealth of industry-specific skill sets.

 I am changing career paths.

 I am writing a cover letter.

Professional Profile The professional profile is a combination of both the career objective and qualifications summary. It is also the most flexible of the three styles as it can be formatted as short paragraph of bullet-point list.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 55 III. Professional Experience The section is the core of your resume, where you are tasked with proving the skills you have listed in the qualifications summary or career objective. When it comes to labeling this section some use

“Relevant Experience, ” or “Work Experience ” as an alternative to “Professional Experience .” IV. Education Having a solid education section helps to display the foundation of your knowledge and expertise.

Depending on your professional experience, you may want to consider switching the order of the professional experience and education sections.

Here are the main points to include in your education section:

The names of your university, community college, or technical school(Don ’t include high school unless you did not attend college) Location of the schools (city, state) Date of graduation (month, year) Degree(s)

GPA (only include if your GPA is above 3.0, round up to the first decimal place , and use this format:

GPA: 3.5/4.0) Awards/Honors/Activities Grants Academic Honors Scholarships

Volunteer positions Professional Affiliations ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 56 Technical Skills

Some careers, such as those in the IT or Engineering fields, require specialized knowledge and hands-on skills. Within the IT industry, a software manager ’s responsibilities will differ from company to company. A technical skills section is helpful in showcasing your knowledge of specific systems.

To prevent this section from taking up too much space, try breaking up this section into categories and list your skills within each. For example:

 Software: Proficient in Microsoft Office Suite, Visio, and Oracle  Programming Languages: Excel at HTML, C++, and Python  Additional Skills additional skills sample  Sample Skills Section  Including an additional skills section may be worth considering. An additional skills section is a

short and concise list of skills relevant to your industry. This section is similar a technical skills, but is often used for industries that do not specifically require advanced skills. Check out the yellow-highlighted additional skills section in the image to your right.

What to include :

 Fluency in a second language  Knowledge of computer applications (Photoshop, Illustrator)  Ability to operate heavy machinery  What not to include:

 Generic statements (Customer Service Skills)  Run of the mill sk ills  Unrelated skills  Even if you have already added skills to your career objective or qualifications summary, it never hurts to add more abilities. For instance, someone like an IT manager who works with a wide

array of programs and techniques will in turn have a wide range of skills to fill both a qualifications summary and additional skills section.


Begumpet, Hyderabad 68005 (040) 292-2345 SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS Exceptionally well organized and resourceful Professional with more than six years

experience and a solid academic background in accounting and financial management; excellent analytical and problem solving skills; able to handle multiple projects while producing high quality work in a fast-paced, deadline-oriented environment.

EDUCATION Bachelor of Science : Osmania University, Hyderabad (In Progress) Major: Accounting Minor: Computer Information Systems Expected Graduation Date: January, 20xx GPA to date: 3.95/4.00 PROFESSIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Accounting and Financial Management  Developed and maintained accounting records for up to fifty bank accounts.

 Formulated monthly and year-end financial statements and generated various payroll records, including federal and state payroll reports, annual tax reports, W-2 and 1099 forms, etc.

 Tested accuracy of account balances and prepared supporting documentation for submission during a comprehensive three-year audit of financial operations.

 Formulated intricate pro-forma budgets.

 Calculated and implemented depreciation/amortization schedules.

Information Systems Analysis and Problem Solving  Converted manual to computerized accounting systems for two organizations.

 Analyzed and successfully reprogrammed software to meet customer requirements.

 Researched and corrected problems to assure effective operation of newly computerized ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 58 systems.

WORK HISTORY  Student Intern , Financial Accounting Development Program, Ville parle, Mumbai (Summer 20xx)  Accounting Coordinator , Nebraska Special Olympics, Omaha, NE (20xx-20xx)  Bookkeeper , SMC, Inc., Omaha, NE (20xx – 20xx)

 Bookkeeper , First United Methodist Church, Altus, OK (20xx – 20xx) PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATION Member, IMA, Osmania University, Student Chapter COMPUTER SKILLS • Proficient in MS Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook), QuickBooks



A GD is a methodology used by an organization to gauge whether the candidate has certain personality traits and/or skills that it desires in its members. In this methodology, the group of candidates is given a topic or a situation, given a few minutes to think about the same, and then asked to discuss it among themselves for 15-20 minutes. In fact, it helps to shortlist candidates for the final interview.

A group discussion is a leaderless group. All the candidates are competitors who have to join the discussion without the presence and participation of the examiner. The examiner standing away from the group evaluates leadership level and personality traits of the several candidates who constitute the group.

A group discussion can be categorized into three phases:

1. Initiation/Introduction 2. Body of the group discussion 3. Summarization/conclusion Importance of G.Ds The group discussion tests how one can function as a part of a team. As a manager, you will always

be working in teams, as a member, or as a leader. Therefore, how you interact in a team becomes a n important criterion for one ’s job selection.

Company ’s perspective:

The G.D is to check how one behaves, participates and contributes in a group, how much importance one can give to the group objective as well as one ’s own. The aspects which make up a GD are verbal communication, non-verbal behavior, and conformation to norms, decision-making ability and cooperation.

These are four essential components of a group discussion test:

 Personality manifestation  Knowledge  Communication skills  Leadership ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

60 Types of GD:

Do’s and Don ’ts DO’S  Respect the contribution of other speakers  Speak pleasantly and with courtesy to all members of the group  Take time to organise your thought. Think of what you are going to say.

 Listen well to the ideas of other speakers; you will learn something.

 Acknowledge what you find interesting  Remember that a discussion is not a fight. Learn to disagree politely  Respect differing views. Those who hold them are not necessarily wrong  Language skills are important only to the effect as to how you get your points across clearly and fluently.

 Try to stick to the discussion topic. Don ’t introduce irrelevant information  Be aware of your body language. keep it open and friendly  Avoid gestures that appear aggressive  Speak clearly. Don ’t whisper DON ’TS: Group

discussion Factual topics Controversial topics Abstract topics

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 61  Don’t take offence if another speaker disagrees with you. Putting forward different points of view is an important part of any discussion  Never try to intimate or insult another speaker or ridicule the contribution of others

 Don’t use comments like “that’s stupid ” or “you’re wrong ”. Learn to disagree and argue appropriately.

 Avoid negative body language when speaking  Take care to use a moderate tone of voice. If you sound angry or aggressive others will dominate the discussion  Avoid drawing too much on personal experience.

 Don’t interrupt or talk over another speaker. Let them finish their point before you start.

Listening to others earns you the right to be heard.

Dynamics of the group discussion:

In a GD, an idea or a perspetive which provides a scope for entirely new dimensional discussion is always highly appreciated.

Some of the dynamics of a good GD are  Flexibility  Initiative  Persuasiveness  Communication skills

 Knowledge and ideas regarding a given subject  Capability to co-ordinate and lead  Exchange of thoughts  Addressing the group as a whole  Thorough preperations


Interventions is a common feature one can come across in GD ’s. It is very importat how we intervene.

The interviewer is very specific about how you carry yourself when you need to intervene.

Some tips to keep in mind while you intervene in a GD  Never be emotional  Use appropriate vocabulary and phrases  Use pleasant body language ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

62  Keep in mind that you are doing it only to convey your opinion  And not to prejudicing against the other team member Fluency and coherence:


Enhance your pool of vocabulary with not so tedious or ornamental words; they must be simple and general. It is also recommended that you learn some phrasal verbs as well as some idioms ad proverbs of this language which will add extra boost to your fluency. Never rush with your sentences. Be at ease always. Speak loud and clear so that your team mates can hear you, don ’t mumble. Talk plainly, briefly, naturally, sensibly, truthfully, purely. Avoid slang, don ’t put on airs and don ’t use big words!

Command over the language and good grammar definitely aids you in enhancing your performance.

To enhance fluency, tone of voice and articulation, start by reading aloud from a book or an editorial for around 15 minutes daily. Fluency means, where mind is able to express one ’s thoughts freely in English. Gain fluency by expanding vocabulary.


 Clarify the purpose, goal, or thesis of your talk.

 Have the focus of your talk so clear that you can rewrite it  Know the point of your talk: what ’s the big picture?

 Limit yourself to relatively few main ideas  Fully develop these few main points  Make rhetorical choices that maximize the communication of your purpose, goal or thesis.

 Use an organizational pattern that helps the group to follow and predict where you are headed with your topic. Develop an outline based on your thesis statement  Mind map : using the central point of the talk as origin in the development of a radiant, associative pattern of ideas  Pros and cons: arguing the positive and negative aspects of an issue or problem,

 Problem – solution: posing a problem and offering a solution  Develop an introduction that sparks the audience ’s curiosity and gives them a reason to listen why is this topic important to them?

 Develop a conclusion that summarizes the main points that you have presented.

Modulation of voice: Voice modulation to improve your voice and increase your authority in presentation s.


 Pausing Body language:

Gathering information of body language principles, dressing style and usage of words can be done by noticing peers or participating on the podium level. Make it a habit to speak publicly and take part in extempore speeches and on the stage activities. Body language is something which people rarely t alk about but expressions speak the most. Many times we can gauge by a smile or a frown about the words that are not expressed by the tongue.

 Physical appearance  Head position  Eye contact  Gesture  Stance

 Facial expression  Time to process the message  Bring it all together Relevance:

Relevance is a key point to be considered while participation in a GD. To have a relevant flow of thought and discussion, the following point should be kept in mind.

Give good prior preparation of the topic  Arrange the prepared data in a sequential flow  Don’t panic  Verify with what you prepare is in relevant to the topic given Summarization techniques:

Most GDs are left without a conclusion, and it isn ’t even essential that a group reach one.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 64 A conclusion represents a final stage where the entire group decides in favor or against a topic, in the case of a summarization a candidate summarizes in a nutshell what the group has discussed While summarizing a discussion, the following points should be kept in mind:

 A person should not share his or her own view point alone.

 A summary should not dwell and concise.

 It should be brief and concise.

 It should incorporate all the important points spoken.

 It is not advisable to add anything once a GD has been summarized.

A simple framework for a summary can be, “we had a healthy group discussion and, as group, evaluated this topic from different perspectives. Some of my friends spoke in favor of the topic and the reasons they gave were (elaborate), while some good points against the topic were (elaborate) ” In all, we had a very good discussion with everyone participating enthusiastically.

Viva voce Questions:

1. Nature and importance of group discussion.

2. Mention the Do ’s and Don ’ts of a group discussion.

3. What are the dynamics of a good group discussion?

4. What is the summarization technique of a good group discussion?

5. Group interaction COMMON ERRORS Introduction to Common Errors in English Usage:

The concept of language errors is a fuzzy one. I ’ll leave to linguists the technical definitions. Here we’re concerned only with deviations from the standard use of English as judged by sophisticated users such as professional writers, editors, teachers, and literate executives and personnel officers. Incorrect Correct 1. Mr. Sharma is my English teacher Mr . Sharma is my Teacher of English.

2. Chiranjivi is my cousin brother. Chiranjivi is my cousin.

3. One must do his duty. One must do one ’s duty.

4. He made a blunder mistake. He made a blunder.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 65 5. Open your book on page ten. Open your book at page ten.

6. He has gone to abroad. He has gone abroad 7. He married his daughter. He got his daughter married.

8. He live in the boarding. He lives in the boarding house.

9. Sachin and myself helped you. Sachin and I helped you.

10. Please write with ink. Please write in ink.

11. He died from cancer. He died of cancer.

12. My younger brother goes to the college daily. My younger brother goes to college daily.

13. He is taller than me. He is taller than I (am).

14. It is a true fact. It is a fact.

15. Radha resembles to her mother. Radha resembles her mother.

16. Please pay for your bill. Please pay your bill.

17. I need a house to live. I need a house to live in.

18. I want a pen to write. I want a pen to write with.

19. We go to college by foot. We go to college on foot.

20. I prefer coffee than tea. I prefer coffee to tea.

21. I will wait here until you do not return. I will wait here until you come.

22. He needs not worry. He need not worry.

23. Mohan insisted to go there. Mohan insisted on going there.

24. His grandmother is died. His grandmother is dead.

25. Are you a member in the committee? Are you a member of the committee?

26. Sachin is good in English. Sachin is good at English.

27. Thousands were injured in the war. Thousands were wounded in the war.

28. There is no other alternative. There is no alternative.

29. What is the cost of this pen? What is the price of this pen?

30. Translate this passage from English to Hindi. Translate this passage from English into Hindi.

31. I have learnt this lesson word by word. I have learnt this lesson word for word.

32. I am going to cut my hair. I am going to have my hair cut.

33. I asked him that why he was late. I asked him why he was late.

34. He pays more attention to Hindi than English. He pays more attention to Hindi than to English.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 66 35. Sachin has made ten goals. Sachin has scored ten goals.

36. He admitted that he had committed the murder. He confessed that he had committed the murder.

37. Please consult the concerned authority. Please consult the authority concerned.

38. This is the house whose roof leaks. This is the house, the roof of which leaks.

39. Being a cloudy day, we did not go out. It being a cloudy day, we did not go out.

40. Please give a ten rupees note. Please give a ten rupee note.

EXERSICE 1 Correct the following sentences.

1. We are only five on our team.

2. I would rather to work from home than come to the office.

3. We ’re used to have a lot of work to do, so meeting the deadline won ’t be a problem.

4. My client sent me an email but I haven ’t replied her yet.

5. Maybe I ’m going to finish this today.

6. Please borrow me your badge so I can get into the storage closet.

7. I can ’t finish this by the end of the day. Even though I spend all day on it, I won ’t finish on time.

8. Probably, I ’ll go to the beach on Saturday.

9. The Old Man and the Sea was written for Ernest Hemingway.

10. Our office is near to the airport, so it will be easy for you to get here.

Exercise 2 1. . We have many stuffs to do this week, so I don ’t know if I can go to English class.

2. Despite I was tired, I came to work today.

3. If we had a gym here, I can work out after work.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 67 4. I always try to do things very careful and make sure I do them correct. (two mistakes) 5. We have people from all over the world here: India, United States, Venezuela, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (two mistakes)

6. Are we going to have to work overtime again this week? I hope no.

7. Yesterday, he told me that he will send the email after lunch, but he didn ’t do it.

8. My schedule often changes, but I normally work since 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.

9 I thought you were still with Microsoft. When did you stop to work there?

10 I ’m not pretty sure about what we should do.

PREPOSITIONS A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. Most prepositions have several definitions, so the meaning changes quite a bit in different contexts.

Here are a few types of prepositions with examples.

Prepositions of Time 1. At:

At is used to indicate when something happens. We use at with clock times, e.g. periods of the year, and periods of the clay, festivals, etc. But we don't use at with 'morning', 'evening', 'afternoon', etc.

a. The train left at 8 o'clock.

b. She used to go to temple at Dussehra and Diwali.

c. She married at the age of twenty.

2. In:

In is used to indicate the period of time in which something happens. We use 'in' with centuries, years, seasons, months, periods of the day 'morning ‘, 'evening', 'afternoon'.

a. She was born In 1990.

b. They visited this place in summer.

c. The theft took place in the day-time.


It is used with days, dates, birthdays, anniversaries, etc.

a. We went to see a movie on Tuesday.

b. He was born on October 3.1980.

c. We congratulated him on his birthday.

4. During:

During may be used instead of 'in' with periods of the day, months, seasons, years, decades and centuries to express the idea that something continues throughout the whole of a specified period.

a. During the war many people were killed.

b. We work during the day and sleep during the night.

c. We try to contact people during October.

5. By :

By is used to indicate the latest time at which an action will be finished a. He will finish this work by 5 o'clock.

b. You must come to me by 8 am.

c. Applications must be received by 10th May.

6. For :

For is used with periods of time to indicate how long an action lasts. It is generally used with the Perfect Tense but is also used with other tenses.

a. They have lived here for five years.

b. It rained continuously for twelve hours.

c. They have been working for two hours.

7. Since:

Since is used with a point of time in the past from which some action began and it continues till the time of speaking. It is generally used with the Perfect Tense.

a. He has lived here since 1980.

b. Everything has changed since the last summer.

c. It has not rained since the end of June.


From indicates the starting point of an action in the past or future. It is always used with ’to’ or 'till ‘.

a. They lived here from 1980 till/until 1990.

b. He lives in his office from 9 am. to 5 pm.

c. She is interested in the period from 1950 to 1960 Prepositions of Place 1. At: At is used to show the exact point, e.g. houses, stations, small villages and towns.

a. They lived at Gohana, a small town in Haryana.

b. He was born at his village, Shilmar.

2. In: In is used when the reference is not to any specific place or to the names of large cities, countries etc.

a. Many people in India live in villages.

b. They lived in Europe for ten years.

3. On: On is used to indicate a particular area of land or place where something is a. There is a school on the outskirts of the city.

b. The hotel stands on the banks of a river.

Prepositions of Direction 1. Towards : Towards is used to indicate the direction of something a. They went towards the airport.

b. He was speeding towards the town.

2. For: For is used to show direction only when the verb indicates the beginning of a movement a. She left for Japan early in the morning.

b. They left for home late at night.

3. Against: Against means to have contact or pressure a. The child threw the ball against the wall.

b. He put the ladder against the wall.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 70 Commonly confused prepositions AS/ LIKE  As means ‘similar to ’. (real).

As a manager, she has to make many important decisions. (real)  Like means ‘in the same way as ’. (unreal) What a beautiful house! It ’s like a palace. (unreal) IN TIME/ ON TIME:

 In time means ‘early enough ’ Passengers should be in time for their train.

 on time means ‘punctually ’ The 8.15 train started on time. (It started at 8.15) SINCE/ FROM  Since is used for ‘time’, never for place and means.

I have been working since 9.00 in the morning.

 From is used when time is referred to. From can be used of ‘place ’ and ‘time’ with (to or till/until):

Where do you come from? (place) Most people work from nine to ten. (time) BETWEEN/ AMONG:

 Between is used to ‘show the relation of two people or things ’ and it can be used ‘of more than two when there is a definite number in mind ’.

You can sit between Ali and Ahmed.

Luxembourg lies between Belgium, Germany and France.

 In addition, ‘for periods identified by their beginning and ending points ’, between is used:

Between 1918 and 1939 many people in the West lost their faith in democracy.

 Among, however, ‘relates a person/ thing to more than two others ’ He was happy to be among friends again.

BESIDE/ BESIDES  Beside means ‘at the side of ’ We camped beside a lake.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 71  Besides means ‘in addition to ’ or ‘as well as ’ I do all the cooking and besides that I help Tom.

ABOVE/ OVER  The prepositions (above and over) have the same meaning ‘higher than ’ Can you see the helicopter above/over the palace?

 On the other hand, they are different in some senses. Above indicates the following :

(i) ‘Measurement on a vertical scale ’, (ii) ‘the height of land ’( ibid) :

The temperature is three degree above zero. (Measurement) The summit of Everest is over 8000 meters above sea – level. (height of land) Exercises:

I.Pick the correct preposition.

1. The Minister of parliament lives in/on/at Maiden Street.

2. He’ll be ready to leave in/on/at about thirty minutes.

3. The child responded to his mother's demands with/by/from throwing a tantrum.

4. I will wait from/at/until 6:30, but then I'm going home.

5. The police caught the thief in/from/at the corner of Cascade and Plum Streets.

6. My fingers were injured so my sister had to write the note for/with/to me 7. I am not interested to/for/in buying a new car now.

8. What are the main ingredients about/to/of this casserole?

9. My best friend, John, is named after/to/about his great-grandfather.

10. Grandpa stayed up since/for/until two in the morning.

II. Correct the following prepositional errors.

a. Let us discuss about the effects of bad friendship on our career.

b. He went to home hastily.

c. My house is located besides the bank.

d. The two brothers divided the property among themselves.

e. Sweety has been waiting for her mother since two hours.

f. I am waiting for you at downstairs.

g. My friend is leaving to London for higher studies.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 72 h. The teacher emphasized on the importance of discipline in life.

i. I have ordered for a cup of tea.

j. I have informed to the police about the accident.

HOMONYMS, HOMOPHONES AND HOMOGRAPHS Homonyms are two words that are spelled the same and sound the same but have different meanings.

The word "homonym" comes from the prefix "homo- ," which means the same, and the suffix "-nym," which means name. Therefore, a homonym is a word that has the same name as another word, meaning that the two words look and sound exactly alike.

Ex: Bark: Dog ’s shout Bark : outer layer of a tree Bear : tolerate Bear : animal Bank : Money related Bank : edge of the river Address - to speak to Address : location Express : something done fast Express : sharing thoughts

Kind : a good heart Kind : a type Homophones are words that are pronounced the same but they have different meanings and are usually spelled differently as well. They usually occur in groups of two but sometimes they can be three or four in a group. It ’s important to recognize and identify the most common homophones because the spelling can change the entire meaning of a sentence! Here is a list of the most common

homophones .

be bee buy by brake break buy by Homographs are words with different pronunciation, meanings and origins but the same spelling.

They are not to be confused with homonyms, homophones ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 73  Bow: Bend forward Bow: Front of a ship.

 Fair: Appearance Fair: Reasonable.

 Close: Connected Close: Lock.

 Lean: Thin Lean: Rest against.

TECHNICAL REPORT WRITING Engineers and scientists write formal reports for many reasons, including the documentation of experiment and designs.

What distinguishes a formal report from an informal report ing of information? The answer lies not in the topics of formal reports, but in the expectations of the audiences for formal reports. In a formal report, the audience expects a methodical presentation of the subject that includes summaries of important points as well as appendices on tangential and secondary points. Note that the readers for a formal report are often two or more distinct audiences. These distinct audiences include professionals

specializing in the report's subject matter, professionals not specializing in the report's subject matter, and managers overseeing the report's subject matter.

For, instance, as an engineer or scientist working on the design of an airplane seat, you might write several formal reports. One formal report might propose a new design for the seat. A second formal report might update the progress on the construction of a test seat. Yet another formal report might document tests performed on the design. Still another formal report would assess whether the new design should replace the existing design. In the last report, you would combine elements from all the

previous reports. Note that the last report might appear as a research article, which is a special kind of formal report for a research audience.

Key features of reports Do remember that Reports  are designed for quick and easy communication of information  are designed for selective reading And while writing,

 use sections with numbered headings and subheadings  use figures and diagrams to convey data.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 74 Basic Structure of a Report A report usually has these components:

 Cover  Title page  Acknowledgements  Table of Contents  Abstract and summary

 Introduction  Discussion or description  Conclusions  Recommendations  Appendix

 List of references  Bibliography  Glossary  Index Cover

To protect the manuscript against damage, a report is usually bound in a cover, a neat and attractive cover gives a report professional look. It should contain only essential information, namely, the report number and its clarification, if any, name of the organization, title of the report, name of the author and the date.

Title page The title page gives:

 the course name and number, the department and university  the title of the report  the authors' names, and ID numbers  the date of submission ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

75 Acknowledgments It is necessary to acknowledge any help, assistance or guidance received from different persons or organizations. In doing so you should be sincere and courteous and have a variety in your expressions. A few commonly used expressions are given below:

 We thank  We are grateful  We are highly obliged to  Thanks are due to The reasons for thanking the person (s) are also stated, for example, we are particularly grateful to Mr.

John‎for‎his‎useful‎guidance,‎and… Abstract and Summary An abstract is a clear, concise condensation of the purpose and the most important results of the project. It states what the report is all about, what has been accomplished and the significance of the achievement. A summary on the other hand is the entire report in a nutshell. It has a beginning, stating

why the project was carried out and why the report was written; middle, highlighting the most important feature of the report and an end giving conclusions and recommendations Introduction An introduction states the subject and the purpose of the project, gives the background, describes the basic procedure or methods followed for the collection of date and their sources, defines scope points

out the limitations or qualifications of the project; and indicates the value or importance of the project.

Discussion or Description The function of this element is to discuss or describe the main business of the report. It naturally therefore contains the data on an organized form, of them in tables, which are analyzed. These are then evaluated and judgment is formed and they ultimately lead to the formulation of conclusions.

Conclusions To give a sense of finality and completeness to the discussion or description, it is a common practic e to make a certain remarks at the end of a piece of writing. Their function is merely to bring the discussion smoothly to a close, giving the reader a psychological assurance of having come to an end.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 76 Recommendations Recommendations, when given, are clearly derived from the conclusions and indicate future action, application of material, need the further investigation or proposed programme, etc.

Appendix The appendix is a useful element of the report. Each appendix should be a separate unit and should be unnumbered as Appendix A, Appendix B, etc. the kinds of material that are generally included are as follows: derivations of equations, detailed calculations, copies of exhibits, data sheets, questionnaires used in the investigation, list of questions used for interview, sample of forms, detailed descriptions of

equipment or procedures, tables and figures which would be conveniently fit into the body of the report, etc.

List of references If you have used or quoted in your report matter form any published or unpublished source, you should give credit to the author(s) concerned by citing them in the text and listing them at the end o f the report. This list is known as the list of references. The entries in the list with full bibliographical details are made in the alphabetical order or in order of citation in the text.

Bibliography A bibliography is a list of sources consulted. It is serially numbered and the entries in it are made in the alphabetical order. The details appear in the same sequence as in the list of references.

Glossary A glossary is a list of technical words or terms used by the reporter in a special sense. The sole purpose of a glossary is to help the reader understand clearly what you say in the report.

Index An index helps the reader locate a topic or sub-topic or any other material easily. The entries in the index are arranged in an alphabetical order and are cross-reference ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 77

Sample report A report on an accident that took place in a leading plastic manufacturing unit.


Ajesh Kumar The Supervisor / Quality Control Hyderabad 13 June 2018 To:

The Managing Director ABC Plastics Private Limited, Warangal, Telengana District, Sub: Report on the fire accident/Ref: TN/Che/645 With reference to your memo No.TN/Che/645, dated 17th February 2018, a detailed study on

the fire accident has been made. A report on the accident with suggestive measures to avoid such mishaps in future is illustrated below.

Last week on 14th February2018, a fire broke out in the plastic injection manufacturing unit due to a spark produced in the electric circuit near the main when the products (powder container shutter for HLL) were being dispatched. The products were 400 KG in volume.

Immediately fire extinguishing spray started automatically and fire service rushed from outside also. About 20 workers involving in the service inside the shop floor experienced 20% burns. They were administered first aid and taken to the hospital immediately. The fire continued and all the products to be dispatched were burned out completely even though the fire service took their best.


i) Under investigation, it was found that some spark had occurred to damage in the power line.

ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH 78 ii) Constant exposure to paint had caused the damage.

Conclusion and recommendations:

i) Wiring should be checked and replaced at regular intervals, particularly, in the paint shop.

ii) Proper fuses should be installed.

iii) Workers should be provided fire-resistant dress.

iv) More number of automatic fire extinguishing devices should be installed.

Ajesh Kumar.